Skip to 0 minutes and 7 secondsIn this step, we're going to look at two views of academic freedom-- the traditional view and a contemporary or socially engaged view. Both of these views are rooted in the history discussed in earlier steps. The traditional view is rooted in the 19th and early 20th century history of the university and academic freedom. The contemporary or socially engaged view, is rooted more in the late 20th century and early 21st century history of the university. Both are grounded in international standards, including especially the UNESCO recommendation of 1997, which encapsulates all of the core higher education values.
Skip to 0 minutes and 45 secondsNow, the traditional view: It's rooted in the German Humboltian tradition and that later evolved in the United States AAUP tradition of academic freedom. It focuses on the university space, the physical university-- classrooms and laboratories, journals, and the dialogue and discourse between professors and students in those spaces. It treats expression outside of these spaces as not academic, and therefore outside of the protection of academic freedom. The traditional view seeks clear boundaries, intending them to be easier to defend, but we'll have to ask ourselves if that's true. There are several challenges or critiques to this traditional view. The first is that it's an oversimplification of what academic activity looks like today.
Skip to 1 minute and 34 secondsIf we think about schools of law and journalism, public administration, and social work, all of these have very active engagement outside the walls of the campus. And surely those works are being protected by academic freedom as well. The second critique of the traditional view is that it offers a false security bargain. Defenders of academic freedom who support the traditional view seem to think that if we draw clearer boundaries around what is protected by academic freedom, those boundaries will be easier to defend. But history offers very little support for this.
Skip to 2 minutes and 9 secondsIn fact, history offers a lot of evidence that every attempt to artificially draw a limit on intellectual inquiry, especially when that limit is drawn from outside the university space, it not only doesn't increase academic freedom, it shrinks academic freedom and the security of the university. The third and final critique of the traditional view is that it's an abdication of that other core value we care about, social responsibility. Remember we said social responsibility is the responsibility of members of the higher education space to use their academic freedom and their institutional autonomy for the benefit of society.
Skip to 2 minutes and 49 secondsSo those who are critics of the traditional view say defining academic freedom and the role of the academic as within a certain set of walls and limits, is an abdication of their obligation to work for society in an active, engaged way. So our second view is the contemporary or socially engaged view of academic freedom. This is a broader view than the traditional view, and it's not focused on drawing clear lines between academic and nonacademic conduct or expression. Rather, the socially engaged view turns on whether or not the conduct or expression was carried out according to professional standards, as determined by other experts in that field. So this is a broader view, but still not all conduct would be covered.
Skip to 3 minutes and 37 secondsConduct that isn't carried out according to professional standards wouldn't be covered by academic freedom under the contemporary view. Similarly, conduct that is violent or coercive, would also be outside of the definition of contemporary academic freedom, as well as outside of traditional academic freedom. Conduct that is partisan, ideological, dogmatic, or other forms of what might be called closed expression, which are marked by an unwillingness to be persuaded by new evidence or new information, these are also outside of the contemporary definition of academic freedom.
Skip to 4 minutes and 17 secondsIn fact, if a line has to be drawn between what is or is not connected to academic freedom versus free expression, the contemporary view would draw the line there, between open forms of expression that are open to persuasion and closed forms of expression that are not open to persuasion. Indeed, it's that willingness to be persuaded by new information and new evidence and discourse that is the hallmark of socially engaged academic freedom when it's carried out by professional standards. Openness to persuasion is really the heart of the university. So what do you think? We've got two versions of academic freedom, two views-- the traditional and the contemporary-- or socially engaged.
Skip to 5 minutes and 4 secondsThroughout this course, we will ask you to test your view against these two views and to decide which one you think you're most comfortable with, and share your comments about it in the comments section.
"Traditional" versus contemporary or "socially-engaged" academic freedom
The two main views on what academic freedom is or should be can be described as either “traditional” or “contemporary” and “socially-engaged”
As we look into these two views please think about the following questions:
- Which view do you find more persuasive?
- Does taking the traditional or contemporary view make it easier or more difficult to ask “dangerous” questions?
“Traditional” academic freedom
As we saw in the history article (step 1.5), the “traditional” view of academic freedom goes back to the 19th and early 20th Century. The German “Humboltian” university is often cited as an example. One feature of this tradition is that academics play an active part in governing their own institutions. Typically this tradition focuses on freedoms of academic inquiry and instruction within the university space. Academic freedom in the classroom or laboratory should have special protection. The same goes for academic research, publication and expression that targets an academic audience.
Other forms of expression or conduct by members of the higher education community is treated as “not academic”. As a consequence it is not protected by academic freedom. It is still protected as a human right. Drawing the line between human rights and academic values is an important question that we will come back to very soon in the course.
The traditional view attempts to distinguish “academic” from “not academic” according to 4 features:
the context of the expression: Academic journal articles (academic) versus public blogs, opinion essays, or columns in newspapers (non-academic);
the format of the expression: data-heavy analysis (academic) versus written commentary (non-academic);
the target audience: within the higher education sector (academic) versus a wider public (non-academic);
the location: on campus (in the classroom) or off campus.
According to the traditional view a political scientist exercises academic freedom when publishing in an academic journal. But not when publishing in a newspaper or general circulation magazine.
Clearly defining the limits of academic freedom intends to make them easier to defend. The rest of this course will invite you to question whether traditional boundaries are appropriate. Are they in fact easier to defend against those trying to limit academic inquiry or expression?
Contemporary challenges for the “traditional” view
Those that have a contemporary or socially engaged view of academic freedoms challenge the traditional view on three points:
Oversimplification: First, they claim that the traditional view risks oversimplifying academic inquiry and expression. They claim that you can’t avoid treating subjects that concern a wide public in disciplines like law, journalism, business, public and international affairs, medicine and public health, social work, and the like.
Is it really possible to distinguish “safe” or “legitimate” areas of enquiry from “sensitive” or “trouble making” areas?
Take the physical or biological sciences, often considered safe. But they are also likely to raise sensitive or troublesome issues. For example: * physics* and weapons systems (like weapons of mass destruction) * environmental science* and climate change issues * biology* and issues related to infectious diseases, pandemics and the like.
These are just as controversial as issues we encounter in political science – for example controversial governance issues - or sociology - for example civil society’s role in society, the status of the family, or religious conflicts.
False security: Second, the contemporary view claims that the traditional view provides false security. The security is based on an implicit trade-off: True scholarship is more worthy of academic freedom protection than other forms of expression. Excluding non- traditional forms of inquiry and expression from the protection of academic freedom helps avoid attacks on academic freedom. Unfortunately, history has many examples that show that accepting limits on academic inquiry or expression undermines both academic freedom and security. Especially when limits are imposed from outside the higher education community.
Social responsibility: Finally, the traditional view of academic freedom is said not to take social responsibility seriously. Social responsibility is the duty to seek and impart truth in order to respond to contemporary problems and the needs of all members of society. The state and public respect academic freedom and institutional autonomy. The academic community in turn uses these freedoms in a way that benefits society.
The examples we just mentioned involve complex problems like weapons of mass destruction, climate change, pandemics, ethnic and religious conflict, authoritarianism, mass human rights violations, and the like. On these issues, the contemporary view would be that academics have a responsibility to do more than merely publish findings for a public of academics. Rather, they have a responsibility to communicate and translate expert findings in ways that inform public understanding and debate.
Contemporary or “socially-engaged” academic freedom
A broader view of “socially-engaged” academic freedom embraces social responsibility and resists placing arbitrary limits on areas of academic inquiry and expression.
Viewing something as “academic” or “not academic” considers whether the inquiry or expression is undertaken according to the ethical and professional standards of the subject discipline. Encouraging a “socially engaged” understanding of academic freedom and objecting to line-drawing between the “academic” and the “nonacademic” areas does not mean that academic freedom protects all conduct or expression. Violent or coercive conduct - destruction of property, arson, or threats to harm or kill others - is not protected by academic freedom or human rights principles. Of course, the principles of due process and fair and humane treatment still apply, as will be discussed later in this course.
Similarly, academic freedom does not protect most forms of partisan, ideological, dogmatic, or similar “closed” forms of expression when these do not show a willingness to examine new information and evidence and to engage in open discussion and debate. Again, it should be underlined that these forms are still protected by human rights principles.
Even the contemporary view of academic freedom sees a need to draw lines around the scope of academic freedom in some cases. The lines are drawn between closed forms of expression and conduct on the one hand. On the other hand, those that are open to the possibility of persuasion and modification of views, that are a hallmark of higher education communities. Under this view, for example, academic inquiry into politics or religion is protected by academic freedom, but partisan campaigning or proselytizing is not.)
Those that support the traditional view tend to focus on context, format, location or target audience when deciding if expression or conduct is protected by academic freedom. Supporters of the socially-engaged view tend focus on whether the conduct or expression is undertaken according to professional standards, wherever it takes place, as determined by higher education professionals of similar expertise. Which view is closest to your view? Why? Let us know in the comments section.