What is torture?
Some doctors specialise in treating and investigating victims of torture. However, identifying victims of torture and supporting their needs are the responsibility of every health professional. Additionally, identifying and recording acts of torture is a step towards finding and prosecuting the perpetrators.
This case describes how victims of torture may be identified and cared for in a general practice setting.
Reflect for a minute: How would you define torture?
There are different defintions of torture. The most widely accepted definition of torture internationally is that set out by Article 1 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT):
“… ‘torture’ means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, … when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or …with … acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.”
The UNCAT definition of torture is narrower than that used by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) because it excludes abuse by people other than public officials such as rebel armies or traffickers.
Which definition do you prefer - the UNCAT or ECHR?