Frequency, format and delivery of feedback
In designing your stewardship intervention you need to define who, when, how often and via what means feedback should be provided consistently.
A meta-regression analysis by Ivers et al found five audit and data feedback determinants associated with effectiveness:
• Source is a supervisor or colleague (delivery)
• Is delivered more than once (frequency)
• Is verbal and written (format)
• Aims to decrease undesirable behaviour as opposed to increase desirable behaviour (content)
• And includes explicit targets and action plans
Actionable feedback should be timely, individualised, non-punitive and customisable
Click here to enlarge Graphic example of a pharmacist-driven audit and feedback model.
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