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Frequency, format and delivery of feedback

In designing your stewardship intervention you need to define who, when, how often and via what means feedback should be provided consistently.

A meta-regression analysis by Ivers et al found five audit and data feedback determinants associated with effectiveness:

• Source is a supervisor or colleague (delivery)

• Is delivered more than once (frequency)

• Is verbal and written (format)

• Aims to decrease undesirable behaviour as opposed to increase desirable behaviour (content)

• And includes explicit targets and action plans

Actionable feedback should be timely, individualised, non-punitive and customisable

Alt textClick here to enlarge Graphic example of a pharmacist-driven audit and feedback model.

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