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Frequency, format and delivery of feedback

In designing your stewardship intervention you need to define who, when, how often and via what means feedback should be provided consistently.

A meta-regression analysis by Ivers et al found five audit and data feedback determinants associated with effectiveness:

• Source is a supervisor or colleague (delivery)

• Is delivered more than once (frequency)

• Is verbal and written (format)

• Aims to decrease undesirable behaviour as opposed to increase desirable behaviour (content)

• And includes explicit targets and action plans

Actionable feedback should be timely, individualised, non-punitive and customisable

Graphic example of a pharmacist-driven audit and feedback model. 'AMS manager - PM monthly feedback of process and outcome measures via email and verbally during learning cycles on improvements (or otherwise) as well individualised goal-setting to enable self-monitoring and action planning' - 'pharmacists - monthly verbal feedback to multi-disciplinary antibiotic teams' - 'After obtaining permission from the front-line doctors, pharmacists recorded audit and intervention data of process measures weekly on standardised templates which were submitted monthly via email to the project manager'.Click here to enlarge Graphic example of a pharmacist-driven audit and feedback model.

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