Skip to 0 minutes and 5 seconds In this lecture we will talk about the mobility application of battery storage. The transport sector causes about 23% (equal to 906 MtCO2e) of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Europe in 2015. Adding emissions from the international aviation and marine navigation industries, this share increases to 28%. Interestingly, the largest contributor to this high share are passengers and duty vehicles. What does this mean? This means that the electrification of four-wheel vehicles and powering them through clean and sustainable sources of electricity can contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in Europe. In this lecture, we will focus on electric vehicles, which are powered by batteries. We will call them in short EVs.
Skip to 0 minutes and 52 seconds For EVs, battery is considered as a key enabling technology. The design and technical characteristics of the battery will directly influence the performance of an EV. Batteries with higher energy capacity and lighter weight will result in EV with a higher driving range. In another example, batteries with a higher power rating will lead to EVs with a better acceleration power. The battery lifetime is another important factor. Currently, it is less than 10 years which makes EVs’ lifetime to be shorter than internal combustion engines or ICE vehicles. At the moment, Li-ion battery is the winner of the EV market due to its desirable technical characteristics. Almost all the EVs available in the streets are powered by li-ion batteries.
Skip to 1 minute and 39 seconds Knowing the benefits and potential of EVs, then why the number of sold electric vehicles are limited when compared with ICE cars? First, the high cost of EVs when compared with ICE cars demotivate investment decision of potential owners. Although the fuel savings might be promising, still a small number of people have this calculation in mind when purchasing a vehicle. Second, the performance of EVs are not yet as competitive as ICE cars. For example, their driving-range is lower or life time is shorter. But this is changing fast. Third, customers doubt about EVs’ related services and this creates a barrier. Examples of such doubts are questions about the limited number of charging stations or high maintenance cost of EVs.
Skip to 2 minutes and 32 seconds Finally, weak European value chain has created challenges for electric mobility to take off. At the moment Europe imports a large share of Li-ion battery cells for EVs or other application from Asian countries. This import is associated with risks of transportation delay, lower quality control or value loss. All these parameters have a negative influence on the mobility application of batteries. So now that we know about the benefits of electric mobility and learned about the existing barriers, the question is that how can we improve the position of EVs in the market? First, supportive policies are the most important driving forces behind electric mobility and in particular behind EVs. These policies can contribute to the cost-competitiveness of EVs and motivate customers.
Skip to 3 minutes and 22 seconds Some examples are:
Skip to 3 minutes and 23 seconds Direct subsidies: which mean government give a one-time bonus upon the purchase of an EV to a customer. The second example is fiscal incentives that means an EV owner pay less tax annually and finally, policies creating a more competitive fuel cost saving. When it comes to European countries, Norway has managed to encourage the largest investment in electric mobility. In this country, EV owners are exempted from purchase tax, value added tax, toll road charges or from registration and annual circulation tax. The second driver of electric mobility is the improvement in battery performance and cost. Such improvement enhances the position of EVs in comparison with ICE cars.
Skip to 4 minutes and 9 seconds For example, as discussed previously, the cost of batteries has decreased more than 50% in the past 10 years. This cost reduction has driven much larger investments in EVs. Third driver is to improve services related to EVs in the near future. For example, the available number of fast charging stations can be increased. Currently, there are about 92’000 public electric charging stations available in Europe. This number is planned to reach 200’000 stations until 2020. The fourth driver is the new business model that emerges around batteries that are utilized in EVs. Let’s go through two known examples of business models. The first example is enabling the 2nd life EV batteries. What does this mean?
Skip to 4 minutes and 54 seconds Batteries used in EVs degrade after a certain number of charge and discharge cycles. After this degradation, these batteries may not be suitable anymore for EVs but, they could be used in other applications such as behind-the-meter or grid-scale applications. Reselling these batteries for reusing or 2nd life can enhance the battery revenue in the market and drive further investments in EVs. Another promising business model is vehicle-to-grid. In this case, EV owners can contribute to the grid operation and make extra revenue. To exemplify, EV owners can discharge their electricity that is stored in their EV to the grid during high peak demand. Fifth and final driver is to improve the European value chain and drive further investments in electric mobility and EVs.
Skip to 5 minutes and 44 seconds European Battery Alliance which is initiated by the European Commission aims to do that. Based on a research projection in Europe, EVs will be about 30% of the total number of sold vehicles by 2025. To summarise, in this lecture you learned about the potential role of EVs in reducing CO2 emission of Europe. I explained to you some of the important technical characteristics of batteries that are utilised in EVs. In addition, I highlighted some of the drivers that can enhance position of EVs in the mobility industry. I hope this lesson clarified that enabling technologies and solutions are here and it is now the time to make a step and take advantage of the coming battery revolution.
Battery storage application in mobility
In this step, we will describe the application of battery storage in the mobility sector.
In particular, we will focus on the role of battery storage for on-road four wheels individual and fleet vehicles. Is the performance level of current batteries technologies sufficient for the shift to electromobility? Are electric vehicles about to flood the mobility sector? Watch the video to evaluate barriers and drivers for a large and timely application of batteries. Some projections about the future market trends will be presented and you will get to know a business innovation in this field.