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Skip to 0 minutes and 1 secondHello again, everyone. Well, it's now the end of Week 4. The time has certainly passed by very quickly. I was reading your comments this week. And I'd just like to say thank you for all the things you are sharing in that section of the course. This week in one of the videos I shared about my experience with US Immigration. And many of you shared your own experiences in that regard. So I'd like to thank you because you've not just been sharing with one another about learning a language, but you've also been sharing things about your own life as well. Thank you very much for that. Now today, I'd like to talk a little bit about different forms of learning.

Skip to 0 minutes and 45 secondsLet's think, for example, about when people drive a car. For most drivers when they're driving they're actually doing it automatically. They are shifting gears and checking the mirror and stepping on the pedal and noticing other cars on the street. And they're not necessarily conscious of all these things that they're doing all that once. This is because they've been driving for a long time. And so it has become automatic for them. That is, if we've actually practised a lot, a lot of the things we do become automatic and we're just doing things implicitly. There is learning that happens that we call implicit learning. But for them to get to that point they actually have to start with driving lessons.

Skip to 1 minute and 38 secondsIn driving lessons their instructor had to point out to them first this is what you do, then you do this, then you do this third. They had to pay attention and notice step one, step two, and step three. And it's only after doing this repeatedly that they're able to start driving in a way that is automatic that does not require them to explicitly pay attention to it. Okay? So there are two kinds of learning involved. There's implicit learning and there is explicit learning. Now let's apply this to learning the English language. Let's talk about, for example, listening. In listening you can try implicit learning. And you can do that by listening to English a lot.

Skip to 2 minutes and 30 secondsIf you listen to English a lot then somewhere at the back of your head you're collecting examples of what English sounds like, what the structure of English is like, and so on and so forth. Over time, you'll start figuring out how the English language works. Of course, the difference between learning a second language and driving is that you already have a first language in your head. You already have particular words for things. You already have a particular syntax for your language. And so it's harder for your brain to say, Okay, this is how it works in my first language and I will automatically switch to how it works in the English language. And that is where explicit learning comes in.

Skip to 3 minutes and 17 secondsIf you explicitly pay attention to the differences in English, then you will be more likely to know and develop your English skills more quickly. Some of you came up with a few very good suggestions in the course this week. So for example, one of you suggested that you can listen to English and then transcribe what you've heard. That is you write them all down. And then after you have finished listening you then check whether you've actually written things down correctly. When you are checking whether you got it right or wrong you are paying conscious explicit attention to English. And you're actually telling your brain, 'okay, in this case this is what you need to do'.

Skip to 4 minutes and 7 secondsThis will help you to learn English more quickly. Someone else suggested that you could also paraphrase. So you listen to English, whether it's a sentence or a paragraph or indeed an entire text, and then you paraphrase what you hear. When you do this, you are forcing yourself to pay attention to how you can use different words and different structures to express the same ideas in English. When you do this, again, you will be able to speed up your learning of the English language. And so as with learning to drive a car I'd like to suggest and recommend that when you practice your English you engage both kinds of learning.

Skip to 4 minutes and 56 secondsDo some activities which involve implicit learning and do a lot of them because you need a lot of exposure to learn things implicitly. But at the same time, to also do some activities that involve explicit learning because that will help speed up your learning of English.

Skip to 5 minutes and 17 secondsNow there are one or two more things that I notice on the course this week. One of the things I've noticed is that I think some of you do not realise that there are hyperlinks in the text of the course. That is if you click on them you end up seeing some further resources. Some of you are asking for more resources, which are actually available if you click on the links. So make sure you click on the links if they are available. Similarly, I've also noticed that some of you are not aware that there are actually quizzes during the course. Some of you just skip the quiz.

Skip to 5 minutes and 54 secondsI'd like to encourage you to take the quizzes because the quizzes help you know whether you've gotten the strategy correct for answering the questions in a particular part of the reading test and the listening test. In addition, after you are told that you've gotten the answer correctly or incorrectly, I provide you with some advice on how you approach that task. So if you have not done the quiz before please go back and do the quizzes. And if you have already done the quiz, but have not read the advice I give to you at the bottom of it, then please go back and read the advice. I think you will find this very helpful.

Skip to 6 minutes and 40 secondsThe last thing to say is to give you another quiz. And the quiz question I have for you is this. Do you know which nationality is best represented on this course? Well, you probably have no way of knowing the answer to that.

Skip to 6 minutes and 56 secondsBut I can tell you the answer to the question: there are more than 10,000 people from Vietnam who are signed up for this course. So congratulations for being the best represented country on the course. As a matter of fact, just purely out of interest, I am actually going to be traveling to Vietnam tomorrow. So maybe I'll actually see some of you there. I will be in Ho Chi Minh City, as well as in Hanoi. But if I don't see you there, well, I will be recording next week's round up video from Vietnam. So I will be seeing you from there. Maybe there will be some nice, beautiful Vietnam tourist attraction in the background. So watch out for it.

Skip to 7 minutes and 40 secondsBefore then, have a good weekend. Have a great time in Week 5. And I'll see you at the end of our course. Thank you very much.

Round-up of Week 4

Watch the summary of Week 4. Gad talks about some of the most interesting points from the week, including your comments and discussions.

Add your comments and questions below.

Looking forward to seeing you next week, for the final week of the course!

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Inside IELTS: Preparing for the Test with the Experts

Cambridge Assessment English

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