Skip to 0 minutes and 7 secondsThe framework known as the 4 Ps of Creativity' is one that can help us understand how creativity can be nurtured and allowed to flourish. The framework was created by James Melvin Rhodes in 1961. It came about when Rhodes, as part of his PhD research, collected more than 40 different definitions of creativity. As he compile these, he noticed four distinct groups in the factors that contribute to creative production. These were Person, Process, Product and Press. 'Person' describes how the character of the creator

Skip to 0 minutes and 46 secondsinfluences the creative process: it is the factors that come from within the person who is creating. 'Product' describes how far what is being created influences the amount of creativity in it. Are certain products automatically created in a more creative way than others? 'Process' looks at the ways in which creativity is expressed - and how the process may be encouraged and optimised. 'Press' refers to the environment or climate in which the creative act is performed, and whether this helps or hinders it.

Skip to 1 minute and 24 secondsSo, to sum up, the 4 Ps ask: WHO is creating the creative product? WHAT is the creative product? HOW is it being created? And WHEN AND WHERE is it being created? While creativity is something we all can exercise and enjoy, certain personalities are pre-disposed towards creativity and creation. This may be why society has a tendency to associate certain character traits with 'creative types.' Have you ever found yourself assuming that someone who is intensely creative may also be less organized, or less inclined towards routine and structure? While these stereotypes are certainly not always true, there are certain personalities that tend more towards creativity. Take the creativity quiz now,

Skip to 2 minutes and 15 secondsto see for yourself how much this applies to you: It should only take about 6 minutes. You may also look at how the answers were scored, to understand the basis for this test. The environment around a creative person is a huge determining factor in how well and how much they are able to produce creatively. There are certain environments where stress is extremely high, and there is a strong focus on survival. In this environment, creativity is short-circuited by people's need to manage risk, and think in a calculated and highly-pressured manner.

Skip to 2 minutes and 53 secondsHowever, in an environment where people are allowed the freedom to generate ideas on their own time frame, where they are autonomous and feel trusted by their superiors, they are more likely to flourish. Many of the world's most creative companies have very relaxed and welcoming office environments. We will explore later how companies can best promote creativity through clever design of their spaces and policies. The criteria for creativity that we have seen emerging so far are novelty, originality, usefulness, and a surprise factor. While we certainly require creative products to be useful, even in an abstract rather than functional sense, there is definitely way to approach the design of something purely functional which is different than approaching than something creative.

Skip to 3 minutes and 44 secondsWhen designing a dress or a piece of furniture, we certainly employ more creativity than in designing a plug socket. The latter are, arguably, mainly functional, while the former have an element of functionality but also an element of creativity in their design and attractive appearance. Thus, the type of product that is being created has a significant effect on how much creativity is employed. Some believe that the creative idea emerges out of no where and only a sudden. In fact, an idea may thrive through a series of deliberate processes as well.

Skip to 4 minutes and 21 secondsThe process we're discussing is more to as the thinking processes than a methodology, and unless a concept has a certain form people use different versions of it to tackle problems or to create something new. Using such procedures helps us achieve our goals in a rather structured way. In the following classes, we will further expose you to condition in which you can nurture your creativity skills through this processes.

4 Ps of Creativity

This video introduces one of the key concepts of this course: The 4 Ps of Creativity. The framework will be a useful tool in your journey through creative processes in the future, and one that you can look back on even after the course.

4Ps of Creativity and Recent Updates

Based on the old 4Ps model, Runco updated the model as Following:

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(Additional materials produced by NCTU IMOT class students)

Reference:

Runco, M. A., & Kim, D. (2013). Four Ps of Creativity and Recent Updates. In Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (pp. 755-759). Springer New York.

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Using Creative Problem Solving

National Chiao Tung University