Skip to 0 minutes and 13 seconds Hello, everyone. In this lecture and this section, I’m going to talk about what is the heritage and the origin of the World Heritage Program. In this section, I’m going to talk about what is the heritage and the origin of the World Heritage Program. So, what is the world heritage? Let’s talk about the origin of the world heritage from the1989 Oxford English dictionary. Heritage is something transmitted by or acquired from a predecessor. It means that heritage is related to the object is something you transmitted from your parents or from your grandparents. And then the concept kind of the enlarged from not only the object and things, rather some big things such as site, monument or the natural environment.
Skip to 1 minute and 17 seconds So, in 1998, the heritage concept has been enlarged. The Oxford dictionary define that heritage is the legacy of physical artefacts
Skip to 1 minute and 34 seconds and intangible attributes of a group or society: man-made heritage.
Skip to 1 minute and 42 seconds So what is the world heritage? World heritage, the origins understand of the cultural relics. So, during the renaissance focused on art and architecture The rights of the archaeology cultural relics had received attention as a historical materials. Humanists began to re-recognize ancient Roman ruins from the collection of cultural relics and research. The Enlightenment in the 18th century promoted Western social and ideological changes. After the French Revolution caused the destruction of monuments in 1789, the French decree called for the protection of “property that is useful to the public and belongs to the state.” People began to reflect on the history of the country by appreciating the monuments.
Skip to 2 minutes and 46 seconds The spirit of nationalism became a decisive factor in the protection movement of the 19th century and spread to countries around the world. In general, the definition of past objects and structures as heritage, the process of these concepts and policies is defined as the ‘modern protection movement’ . The concept of protection originated in Europe spreads to different social and cultural contexts, and many cultural relics’ protection schools have emerged in France, Britain, Italy and other countries to promulgate relevant national protection laws or protection standards. So, during this period, cultural heritage was regarded as the property of the nation and the state.
Skip to 3 minutes and 45 seconds It belonged to the state and was essentially different It belonged to the state and was essentially different from the ‘common heritage of mankind’ emphasized by the UN system. However, these two concepts were integrated in the post-war international collaboration. International action for the protection of cultural heritage. So you can see from the screen, the Athens Charter was a 1933 document about urban planning published by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier. The Charter got its name from location of the fourth CIAM conference in 1933, and had a significant impact on urban planning and cultural heritage protection after World War II.
Skip to 4 minutes and 45 seconds In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would eventually inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. So in 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia.
Skip to 5 minutes and 41 seconds This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae.
Skip to 6 minutes and 13 seconds Well, this shows a picture is removal of the obscene as you can see from the images. So this campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which especially contributed to the campaign’s success,
Skip to 6 minutes and 35 seconds Egypt donated four temples: such as the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City in USA. So this is another part of the temple of Abu Simbel. So this project cause the project costed eighty million US dollars, about forty million of which was collected from fifty countries. The project succeeded and let another six god champions. Save varies and its new goals in Italy. UNESCO then initiated with international council on the monument and site, which we call ICOMOS, a draft convention to protect the cultural heritage.
Skip to 7 minutes and 31 seconds So this image shows the job of The Venice charter The Venice charter adopted by the second international conference of architects and technicians in 1964, emphasizes in its introduction the concept of the integrity of human values and the common heritage of mankind. In the theory of conservation, it not only points out the importance of universal standards, but also expresses the respect for cultural differences, which makes it flexible to apply to the experience of different countries, and becomes the basic international literature of conservation theory, and undoubtedly becomes the important reference for the definition and evaluation standard of World Heritage. These laid the foundation for the international conservation movement.
Skip to 8 minutes and 35 seconds This is the first section, the next section I will going to talk about the meaning of culture heritage. Thank you.
Introduction of UNESCO World Heritage Program(1)
By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of UNESCO World Heritage Program from Dr. Rouran Zhang.
Do you know when UNSCO was founded? What does it mean for World Heritage?
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