Skip to 0 minutes and 13 seconds In this section, I’m going to talk about the criterion (iii). And it’s relevant examples, Criterion(iii) bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared; And under this Criterion, In contrast to criterion (ii), this criterion considers processes – cultural traditions that have, normally over a long period of time, defined a way of life or civilization in a geo-cultural region. Such traditions may still be living and vibrant, or may have atrophied in which case the testimony is their memorial. The traditions may be ways of building, spatial planning, or urban patterns.
Skip to 1 minute and 14 seconds Alternatively, the traditions may be intangible but with precise tangible results – such as for instance rock art images which can reflect ideas or aspects of cultural traditions. The key words are ’exceptional testimony’. The testimony is the evidence of a cultural tradition or civilization and must clearly be found in the nominated property. Well, the cultural tradition or civilization must be understood in the context of Outstanding Universal Value. They must express ‘issues of universal nature common to to or addressed by all human cultures’ . That is, the cultural tradition or civilization cannot merely relate to issues which are only important to the specific culture.
Skip to 2 minutes and 14 seconds Well, a civilization might normally be expected to have lasted for a substantial period to have an organized character or unify qualities and to evolve are relatively substantial group of people. Relatively short-lived societies, groups lacking and organized character or unifying qualities or very small groups may not necessarily be regarded as civilization. Well, let me give you some examples. The first example is the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, which is listed in 1987. It’s the first you know, group of the World Heritage. This listed on the world heritage for China. So no doubt, thousands of statues still remain to be unearthed at this archaeological site, which was not discovered until 1974. The first feudal dynasty of the china.
Skip to 3 minutes and 29 seconds The Qin Shihuang is buried surrounded by the famous, the terrible warriors at the center of a complex design to the mirror, the urban plan of the capital Xianyang. The small figures are all different; with their horses, chariots and weapons, they are masterpieces of realism and also of great historical interest. And, you know, based on the Criterion (iii) is the army of statues bears unique testimony to the military organization in China at the time of the Warring Kingdoms (475-221 BCE) and that of the short-lived Empire of a Thousand Generations. The direct testimony of the object found in situ lances, swords, axes, and the different kind of weapons.
Skip to 4 minutes and 33 seconds The documentary value of a group of hyper realistic sculptures where no detail has been neglected. First of all, the information to be gleaned from the statues concerning the craft and techniques of potters and bronze-workers is immeasurable. and bronze-workers is immeasurable. And also the various not only for the Criterion (iii),but also Criterion (iV). And The mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang is the largest preserved site in China. It is a unique architectural ensemble whose layout echoes the urban plan of the capital city Xianyang, with the imperial palace enclosed by the walls of the city, themselves encircled by other walls.
Skip to 5 minutes and 31 seconds This capital of the Qin to which succeeded on the present site of Xian the capitals of the Han, Sui and Tang dynasties is a microcosm of the Zhongguo (Middle Country) that Qin Shi Huang wanted both to unify throughout the land a single system of writing, and to protect from the barbarians that could arrive from any direction the army which watches over the dead emperor faces outward from the tomb. And also the Qin Shi Huang tomb based on the Criterion (vi),
Skip to 6 minutes and 20 seconds Qin Shi Huang is associated with an event of universal significance: the first unification of the Chinese territory by a centralized state created by an absolute monarch in 221 BCE. Well, the second example, I will give you is the Historic Centre of Macao. The Macao is a lucrative port of strategic. The Macao is importance in the development of international trade, was under Portuguese administration from the mid-16th century until 1999, when it came under Chinese sovereignty. With its historic street, residential, religious and public Portuguese and Chinese buildings, the historic centre of Macao provides a unique testimony to the meeting of aesthetic, cultural, architectural and technological influences from East and West.
Skip to 7 minutes and 36 seconds The site also contains a fortress and a lighthouse, the oldest in China. It bears witness to one of the earliest and longest-lasting encounters between China and the West, based on the trade history. Well, the Criterion (iii), I will talk about in this section to see describe Macao bears a unique testimony to the first and longest-lasting encounter between the West and China. From the 16th to the 20th centuries, it was the focal point for traders and the different fields over several centuries.
Skip to 8 minutes and 22 seconds And also the Criterion (iv) Macao represents an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble that illustrates the development of the encounter between the Western and Chinese civilizations over some four and half centuries, represented in the historical route, with a series of urban spaces and architectural ensembles, that links the ancient Chinese port with the Portuguese city.
Skip to 8 minutes and 50 seconds And also this site fulfills the Criterion (vi): Macao has been associated with the exchange of a variety of cultural, spiritual, scientific and technical influences between the Western and Chinese civilizations. These ideas directly motivated the introduction of crucial changes in China, ultimately ending the era of crucial changes in China, ultimately ending the era of imperial feudal system and establishing the modern republic. So I would I talk about the Criterion, not only the Criterion three, but also other Criterion is trying to build a linkage between this section and the following sections.
Criterion(iii): bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony
By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of a unique, exceptional characters of cultural heritage and operation criterion(iii) from Dr. Rouran Zhang.
What characteristics of the legacy do you think are unique? How to prove an exception to a legacy?
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