Skip to 0 minutes and 13 seconds In this section, I’m going to continue to talk about the Criterion ii and also give some examples to illustrate which kind of sites can be listed in this criteria.
Skip to 0 minutes and 28 seconds Well, the criteria 2, the evaluation is to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design. The key phrase in this criterion is ’interchange of human values’. What ICOMOS evaluates is whether the physical assets of a property, in terms of architecture, technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design can be said to relate to
Skip to 1 minute and 11 seconds an interchange of ideas –and this can be interpreted in several different ways:
Skip to 1 minute and 18 seconds So the property may be the embodiment of an idea or concept imported from another region or area and which transformed subsequent creativity in the original region, the recipient region or otherwise; Alternatively, the property may itself have prompted the interchange of human values through inspiring ideas that influenced other areas; And thirdly, there could have been a two-way flow of ideas, with the property displaying some sort of cultural fusion or local adaptation that could be deemed to be emblematic in some way. In all cases the interchange of human ideas or influences needs to have prompted a response, which can be said to be outstanding in terms of the influence it had at the time and/or subsequently on people or society.
Skip to 2 minutes and 27 seconds Well, in many properties, the influences or interchanges refer to the tangible dissemination of ideas important in the history of art, architecture or urban design, or the history of technology, all as embodied in the attributes of the property. As interchange in and between human societies and cultures is commonplace, this criterion requires that the interchange and the values / influence are substantial and important in their impact on the recipient culture. The transfer of a minor cultural aspect, or the transfer of a value which had little impact, are insufficient.
Skip to 3 minutes and 20 seconds In addition, the values or influence interchanged must be manifest in some way in the nominated property, through being embodied in the attributes of the property. An interchange of human values or influence with no manifestation in the property is not a good argument for inscription. Using this criterion to justify a well-preserved example of a type of property is not generally appropriate, and is best argued under other criteria.
Skip to 4 minutes and 2 seconds So, let me give you several examples. The first one is the Palace and Park of Versailles in Paris. The Palace and Park of Versailles build an embodiment by the several generations of architects, sculptors, painters, and the landscape architects represent for the Europe for more than a century, the perfect model of a royal resident, the architecture plan and the majestic composition of the landscape from a close symbols serving as a setting for the many fights of the interior decoration of the apartments. Well, in 1979, the Versailles as listed as world heritage site based on the criteria two. But I will give you some, you know, feedback on the criterion one because it is also on the criterion one.
Skip to 5 minutes and 7 seconds The criterion one, the symbol of the Versailles constitutes a unique artistic realization, by virtue not only of its site but also of its quality and originality. It is genius of design. So this is related to the criterion one, link to the last section. But criterion two, I will emphasize in this section the Versailles exercise that great influence throughout Europe from the end of the 17th century to the end of the 18th century. And incorporate reminiscences of Versailles influenced many other countries in Hampton Court, in Russia and in other Western Europe.
Skip to 6 minutes and 1 second So, this images show, you know, inside views of the Versailles buildings, you know, you can see this fancy bedroom and France dining room represents the Baroque and the type of style. And you can also see from these images is that he Versailles not only have these, you know, Palace and it’s massive, the gardens, but also composed by some small gardens in Chinese garden. Also, these gardens are very delicate. I still have the memory that when I visit the Park of Versailles. Not only the gardens and architecture make me immerse the things, but also these small gardens. And maybe you give you some experience. There is a restaurant serving very good duck in the Versailles, you must go and try.
Skip to 7 minutes and 12 seconds Another example, I would like to talk about is Blenheim Palace in UK. And the Blenheim Palace, near the oxford, stands in a romantic park created by the famous landscape gardener ‘Capability’ Brown. It was presented by the English nation to John Churchill, The first Duke of Marlborough. The John Churchill is actually the answer for the western church which is very famous in World War two of victory in 1704 in the French war and win the French war. Then the Blenheim Palace built between 1705 and 1722 and characterized by an eclectic style and a return to national roots, it is a perfect example of an 18th-century princely dwelling.
Skip to 8 minutes and 14 seconds Well, under the Criterion (ii):, the define of the Blenheim Palace is that by their refusal of the French models of classicism, the Palace and Park illustrate the beginnings of the English Romantic movement, which was characterized by the eclecticism of its inspiration, its return to national sources and its love of nature. The influence of Blenheim on the architecture and organisation of space in the 18th and 19th centuries was greatly felt both in England and abroad. Well, you can see the view of the Blenheim Palace.
Skip to 9 minutes and 2 seconds The gardens represent the English view about the combination of the culture and nature, but you can see from the garden is kind of the modified by the men although it is very natural but very different from the next example I will give you. It is about the Suzhou, the classic garden of Suzhou.
Skip to 9 minutes and 32 seconds The third example of the classic garden of Suzhou, I would like to talk about is in China. And the design of the garden which seeks to recreate natural landscapes in miniature, is nowhere better illustrated than in the nine gardens in the historic city of Suzhou. They are generally acknowledged to be masterpieces of the genre. Dating from the 11th-19th century, the gardens reflect the profound metaphysical importance of natural beauty in Chinese culture in their, you know, small scale of the design.
Skip to 10 minutes and 19 seconds The Criterion (i): The classical gardens of Suzhou that have been influenced by the traditional Chinese craftsmanship and artistry first introduced by the freehand brushwork of traditional Chinese paintings, embody the refined sophistication of traditional Chinese culture. This embodiment of artistic perfection has won them a reputation as the most creative gardening masterpieces of ancient China. And the Criterion (ii), which is under this section, within a time span of over 2000 years, a unique but systematic form of landscaping for these particular types of gardens was formed. Its planning, design, construction techniques, as well as artistic effect have had a significant impact on the development of landscaping in China as well as the world.
Skip to 11 minutes and 26 seconds Well, the classic garden also under Criterion (iii) and Criterion (iv). So the Criterion (iii) , the classical gardens of Suzhou first originated from the ancient Chinese intellectuals’ desire to harmonize with nature while cultivating their temperament. They are the finest remnants of the wisdom and tradition of ancient Chinese intellectuals. Criterion (iv), the classical gardens of Suzhou are the most vivid specimens of the culture expressed in, landscape garden design from the East Yangtze Delta region in the 11th to 19th centuries. The underlying philosophy, literature, art, and craftsmanship shown in the architecture, gardening as well as the handcrafts reflect the monumental achievements of the social, cultural, scientific, and technological developments of this period.
Skip to 12 minutes and 34 seconds I will talk about this Criterion (iii) and Criterion (iv) in the following sections.
Skip to 12 minutes and 43 seconds And also the classic garden also, based on the Criterion (v), these classical Suzhou gardens are outstanding examples of the harmonious relationship achieved between traditional Chinese residences and artfully contrived nature. They showcase the life style, etiquette and customs of the East Yangtze Delta region during the 11th to 19th centuries. Well, this is the end of the section 4 which I talk about the Criterion (ii). And based on the three example to illustrate these Criterion and last example of the Suzhou case, I also talk about another criterion, which I will talk about in the following section. Thank you.
Criterion(ii): exhibit important interchange of human value
By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of the connotation and expression form of important human values and cultural heritage operation criterion(ii) from Dr. Rouran Zhang.
The key phrase in this criterion is “interchange of human values”. Could you please make a summary of the different angles interpreting the “interchange” from this video?
Please feel free to leave a comment in the comments section and let us know your deep thoughts and insights.
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