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Skip to 0 minutes and 13 seconds The next example I would like to show is Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwyneth The fortified complexes of Conwy. The site is located in the former principality of Gwyneth, in north Wales. These extremely well-preserved monuments are examples of the colonization and defence works carried out throughout the reign of Edward I (1272–1307) and the military architecture of the time. And you can see that, the Castles is based on the Criterion three. The royal castles of the ancient principality of Gwyneth bear a unique testimony to construction in the Middle Ages in so far as this royal commission is fully documented.

Skip to 1 minute and 7 seconds The accounts by Taylor in Colvin (ed.), The History of the King’s Works, London (1963), specify the origin of the workmen, who were brought in from all regions of England, and describe the use of quarried stone on the site. They outline financing of the construction works and provide an understanding of the daily life of the workmen and population and thus constitute one of the major references of medieval history. And this site also, based on the Criterion (i), link to the period section I talk about.

Skip to 1 minute and 57 seconds The Conwy represents a unique achievement in that they combine the double-wall concentric structure which is characteristic of late 13th century military architecture with a highly concerted central plan and in terms of the beauty of their proportions and masonry. These are masterpieces of James of St George who, in addition to being the king’s chief architect from 1290 to 1293. So the following part I were going to talk about the Criterion(iv) is be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s)in human history . The Criterion (iv).

Skip to 2 minutes and 55 seconds This criterion relates to the outstanding nature of the typology of a property, nominated in the context of the defined typology illustrating one or more significant stages in history. The essence of this criterion is that the property must in some way demonstrate that it is associated with a defining moment or moments or significant stage(s) in human history. And the property may have been prompted by that moment, or may reflect its impact. The historical moment needs to be deemed to be of outstanding importance, as do its repercussions. The stages may relate to political or economic history, or equally to artistic or scientific history, which had far-reaching consequences. So the property must illustrate a significant stage in human history, in an outstanding way.

Skip to 4 minutes and 12 seconds Such a stage needs to be assessed in a regional and global context, and the stage must be important in that context. An important stage in just the history of one country is insufficient unless there is a substantial regional or global impact. There is also a time dimension to a stage. A stage should be defined in terms of cultural history and the patterns of continuity and change in that history. Artificial time periods (e.g. 18th century) are not, in themselves, a satisfying definition. A meaningful time period should be a defined period which is important and recognized within a cultural context.

Skip to 5 minutes and 2 seconds So the criterion should thus be used in relation to significant ’prototypes’ or strongly representative examples of a defined type of property. This criterion is not meant to encourage or allow the inscription of an example of every type of building, ensemble or landscape in the world – even if it is an outstanding example. The Christian city was built on top of the ancient city, resulting the space building and materials from the 15th century is on the poems promoted the profound review of the city and its image reflecting the spirit of the renaissance classicism and later of the baroque. From its foundation.

Skip to 5 minutes and 51 seconds Rome has continually been with the history of humanities as the capital of the Empire, which dominates the Mediterranean world for many centuries. Rome becomes there after the spiritual capital of the Christian world. And the Criterion (iv), for the Rome is that the historic centre of Rome as a whole, as well as its buildings, testifies to the uninterrupted sequence of three millennia of history. The specific characteristics of the site are the stratification of architectural languages, the wide range of building typologies and original developments in urban planning which are harmoniously integrated in the city’s complex morphology.

Skip to 6 minutes and 55 seconds Worthy of mentioning are significant civil monuments such as the Forums, Baths, city walls and palaces; from the remarkable examples of the early Christian basilicas to the Baroque churches; the water systems. This evidently complex diversity of styles merges to make a unique ensemble, which continues to evolve in time. So the last example is the City of Bath, Founded by the Romans as a thermal spa for the empire Bath became an important centre of the wool industry in the Middle Ages. In the 18th century, under George III, it developed into an elegant town with different kind of building campaigns, the Romans and the English style which blend harmoniously with the Roman baths.

Skip to 8 minutes and 0 seconds So based on the Criterion (iv), the Bath reflects two great eras in human history: Roman and Georgian. The Roman Baths and temple complex make a significant contribution to the understanding and appreciation of Roman social and religious society. The 18th century re-development is a unique combination of outstanding urban architecture, spatial arrangement and social history. Bath exemplifies the main themes of the 18th century neoclassical city; the monumentalisation of ordinary houses, the integration of landscape and town, and the creation and interlinking of urban spaces, designed and developed as a response to the growing popularity of Bath as a society and spa destination to provide an appropriate picturesque setting and facilities for the different social visitors.

Skip to 9 minutes and 17 seconds Although Bath gained greatest importance in Roman and Georgian times, the city nevertheless reflects continuous development over two millennia with the spectacular medieval Abbey Church sat beside the Roman temple and baths, in the heart of the 18th century and modern day city. In this section, I talked about the Criterion iii and iv. And gives you examples to illustrate them. And the next section, I will continue to talk about the Criterion V and Vi. Thank you.

Criterion(iv): an outstanding example in human history

By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of several outstanding samples of human history and cultural heritage operation criterion(iv) from Dr. Rouran Zhang.

Besides the examples introduced in the video, could you give some other examples of World Heritage sites which can be called outstanding representatives of human history?

Please feel free to leave a comment in the comments section and let us know your thoughts and understanding.

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