Skip to 0 minutes and 14 secondsAnd then the last criterion for the cultural heritage is Criterion (vi). And it is a very unique criterion. The company considers this criteria should preferably use in conjunction with other criteria because this Criterion is linked to the intangible heritage things. This should be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. Most of the other criteria involve intangible associations of one sort or another such as historical events, political leaders, wars and conflict, or ideas in town planning or structural innovations, but they concern the tangible impacts of these associations.
Skip to 1 minute and 19 secondsThis criterion by contrast relates to associations that may not have a tangible impact within the property, but nevertheless can be clearly and directly demonstrated. For instance, a mountain or landscape may be sacred or inspirational; a property may have inspired painters, artists or musicians; or the property may be associated with some sort of event that is itself of outstanding importance.
Skip to 1 minute and 57 secondsThe starting point for justifying this criterion must be that the events, traditions, ideas, beliefs or artistic or literary works are of outstanding universal significance. Then the way these events, traditions, ideas, beliefs or artistic or literary works are demonstrated directly or tangibly in the property needs to be set out.
Skip to 2 minutes and 30 secondsSo, bear in mind that the World Heritage Convention is about properties, this criterion may only be used if the physical aspects of the property are of Outstanding Universal Value, it preferably satisfies at least one other criterion, and it can be protected for agreed attributes that convey Outstanding Universal Value. The World Heritage List does not inscribe events, traditions, ideas, beliefs and artistic or literary works in themselves, but it may inscribe properties which are directly and tangibly associated with these. For example, where a religion or movement is of outstanding universal significance and is directly or tangibly reflected in a property, then this may be a good case for inscription.
Skip to 3 minutes and 26 secondsHowever, the List cannot include every temple, shrine or church of the major world religions. A property must be an outstanding example of direct or tangible associations. In addition, more weight has been given to associations with the birthplace or principal place in a particular religion, than to places used to diffuse such faith in a particular context.
Skip to 4 minutes and 1 secondSo let me give you several examples, West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou. So I will talk about this later because this is one of my case studies sites in my research. I am very familiar with this site. I am very familiar with this site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou, comprising the West Lake and the hills surrounding its three sides, has inspired famous poets, scholars and artists since the 9th century. It comprises numerous temples, pagodas, pavilions, gardens and ornamental trees, as well as causeways and artificial islands. These additions have been made to improve the landscape west of the city of Hangzhou to the south of the Yangtze river.
Skip to 4 minutes and 52 secondsThe West Lake has influenced garden design in the rest of China as well as Japan and Korea over the centuries and bears an exceptional testimony to the cultural tradition of improving landscapes to create a series of vistas reflecting an idealized fusion between humans and nature. So that is based on the criteria two and three, and also the criteria is also based on the criteria six. The Tang and Song culture of demonstrating harmony between man and nature by improving the landscape to create pictures of great beauty, captured by artists and given names by poets, is highly visible in the West Lake Landscape, with its islands, causeways, temples, pagodas and ornamental planting.
Skip to 5 minutes and 50 secondsThe value of that tradition has persisted for seven centuries in West Lake and has spread across China and into Japan and Korea, turning it into a tradition of outstanding significance.
Skip to 6 minutes and 7 secondsThe other example I would like to talk about is Historic Centre of Florence in Italy. The Florence, the symbol of the Renaissance, rose to economic and cultural pre-eminence under the Medici in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its 600 years of extraordinary artistic activity can be seen above all in the 13th-century cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore), the Church of Santa Croce, the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace, the work of great masters such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo and other great artist. Base on the Criterion (vi), Florence is materially associated with events of universal importance. It was in the milieu of the Neo-Platonic Academia that the concept of the Renaissance was forged. Florence is the birthplace of modern humanism.
Skip to 7 minutes and 16 secondsThe last example is Acropolis of Athens and its monuments are universal symbols of the classical spirit and civilization and form the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek Antiquity to the world. In the second half of the fifth century BC, Athens, following the victory against the Persians and the establishment of democracy, took a leading position amongst the other city-states of the ancient world. In the age that followed, as thought and art flourished, an exceptional group of artists put into effect of the ambitious plans of Athenian statesman Pericles and, under the inspired guidance of the sculptor Pheidias, transformed the rocky hill into a unique monument of thought and the arts.
Skip to 8 minutes and 22 secondsBased on the Criterion (vi), the Acropolis is directly and tangibly associated with events and ideas that have never faded over the course of history. Its monuments are still living testimonies of the achievements of Classical Greek politicians who lead the city to the establishment of Democracy; the thought of Athenian philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle; and the works of architects and artists. These monuments are the testimony of a precious part of the cultural heritage of humanity.
Skip to 9 minutes and 13 secondsSo this is all the six criteria for assessment. The outstanding universal value of the cultural heritage sites. Let me just show you, the first one represents a masterpiece of human creative genius . The second one talk about the important interchange of the human values.
Skip to 9 minutes and 44 secondsThe third one is about the testimony to a culture tradition. And the fourth one is an outstanding is example of the building architecture in the human history.
Skip to 10 minutes and 0 secondsAnd the fifth one, it is about the outstanding example of traditional human land use, is talk about the relationship between human and nature.
Skip to 10 minutes and 14 secondsAnd the last one, the criteria six, its association with intangible heritage and tangible heritage. So that are the all six criteria. And you can see that is a reference you may be interested to read through. So in this section and the previous section, I generally talk about the criteria one to six, and the next section, I will talk about a little bit of natural criteria and examples. Thank you.
Criterion(vi): associated with living traditions of outstanding universal significance
By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of cultural heritage operation criterion (vi) from Dr. Rouran Zhang.
In your opinion, which World Cultural Heritage sites are closely related to the daily life of predecessors? Why?
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