Linking culture and communication
Throughout this course, the contributions of Edward T. Hall have been noted. This article provides an overview of Hall’s works and ideas, with a focus on how he emphasized context in how culture and communication affect each other.
As an update and further expansion of your knowledge of Edward T. Halls influence on the field of intercultural communication and his contributions, please read the attached article. Below a brief summary is provided
Anthropologist E. T. Hall was the first person to use the term “intercultural communication.” He also famously equated the concepts of “culture” and “communication,” asserting that, “Culture is communication and communication is culture.”
Hall had an intellectual and conceptual influence on nearly all aspects of IC theory, research, training, or practice, and they continue, especially his formulations for considering context, space and proxemics, time and chronemics, synchronicity and other salient aspects of communication styles across cultures (Kulich in the article, p. 1)
Hall regarded the ways that human beings utilize space and time in each context as central to understanding culture and communication. Many important constructs from E. T Hall’s work became influential in later comparative work, affecting developments in social linguistics…psycho- or cognitive-linguistics, cultural anthropology, and architectural studies of space.
Hall introduced the concept of “context” as conveying implicit meanings in communication, contrasting messages where meanings are implicit in mutual trust or experience from a long term relationship, or in the occasion or institution. In most cultures, for example, when a couple repeats their marriage vows in a wedding ceremony, the significance of the event is not expressed explicitly in words, but rather in the event itself, including the presence of family and friends. Hall termed this “high context” communication.
If, however, a couple wishes to have a detailed contract making clear what is expected and the consequences if these expectations are not met, they may hire a lawyer to prepare a contract (a “pre-nuptial agreement”), as is sometimes reported in the marriages of famous or very wealthy individuals. This would constitute a “low context” message. Within any country one sees many examples of a range of higher and lower context messages or communication exchanges, but generally Asian societies have been characterized as placing less trust in words (higher on the value of “context”), while English speaking, and northern European nations are identified as placing more trust in specific words and details in everyday communication. (Condon in the article, pp. 2, 3)
E. T. Hall is credited with the introduction and explanation of many such concepts and terms (high and low context, proxemics, monochronic and polychronic time orientations) which today are used all over the world by those who study interpersonal communication as well as by managers and other professionals working in the public and corporate sectors… Hall’s works and terms have influenced how we think and talk about social interaction in different cultural contexts and in a variety of intercultural relations today.
Kulich, S. J. & Condon, J. C. (2015). Culture and communication: Celebrating a centennial of E. T. Hall’s contributions. The FutureLearn Intercultural Communication Course. Shanghai, China: Shanghai International Studies University
© Steve J. Kulich and John C. Condon, Shanghai International Studies University