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Skip to 0 minutes and 8 seconds The biggest coup however, might be reserved for the cellular community. The underlying standardisation body here is the 3GPP, which has been standardising 3G and 4G systems we use every day. As for 4G– in more technical terms known as Long Term Evolution, LTE, and Long Term Evolution Advanced, LTE-A– cellular is becoming increasingly attractive for supporting large-scale IoT installations due to their wide coverage, relatively low deployment costs, high level of security, access to dedicated spectrum, and simplicity of management. However, LTE networks have historically not been designed with link budget requirements of IoT devices in mind nor optimised for IoT traffic patterns– which can be very, very event-driven. Imagine a sensor measuring the occupancy of a parking spot.

Skip to 1 minute and 9 seconds Therefore, several improvements have been initiated in 3GPP aiming to augment LTE to become more suitable for IoT applications. Given that the number of connected machines are expected to grow dramatically– up to 30,000, maybe 60,000 devices in a single cell– LTE technologies require respective mechanisms to handle a very large number of devices. Further– accounting for the fact that typical IoT data transmissions are infrequent, small, et cetera– some simplified signalling procedures for radio establishment are needed to offer energy consumption saving for such devices. Finally, we are currently trying to reduce complexity of these devices to zero, mainly to keep related patent claims to a minimum and therefore minimise the actual device cost.

Skip to 2 minutes and 5 seconds If technology and data plans are affordable, cellular assistance will be a wonderful support to the IoT ecosystem since available globally and generally very, very reliable.

Emerging 5G networks

In this video, Mischa discusses 5G networks, the third of our emerging IoT connectivity technologies.

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This video is from the free online course:

The Internet of Things

King's College London