Skip to 0 minutes and 11 secondsSo the last of the medals that I've chosen to talk about is from 1729. So Prince Charles Edward Stuart is born in 1720. His brother, Prince Henry, is born in 1725. And this is a medal which establishes the importance of the heir and the spare, and what they're going to do for the Jacobite cause. This is made by a famous medalist called Otto Hamerani. And obviously, we're now with the Jacobite court in Italy. So once they leave Saint-Germain-en-Laye, they are elsewhere in France and then the court comes to Rome and is established in Rome.

Skip to 0 minutes and 53 secondsAnd much as they had done in France where they patronise the leading court artists for Louis XIV, so in Rome they patronise the leading artists in that city. This is a medal that shows the head and upper torso of the heir, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, and the spare, Prince Henry. And what we have is we have Prince Charles Edward Stuart in profile, again, looking right, and his brother, on the other side of the metal, looking left. And again, they're accompanied by Latin inscriptions. So with Prince Charles Edward Stuart it says, Micat Inter Omnes, he shines among all. And in front of him and below his chin is a star.

Skip to 1 minute and 44 secondsSo that star refers to the inscription, but also references Jesus Christ and Alexander the Great, both of whom were told there were stars at that births, which signalled their auspicious futures. So what's happening here is that Prince Charles Edward Stuart is being situated in a lofty, historical constellation where he's being likened to Jesus Christ and to Alexander the Great. So Prince Henry, on the other side of the coin, is accompanied with a Latin inscription Alter Ab Illo, the next after him.

Skip to 2 minutes and 24 secondsAnd again, with the Jacobites, what they want to stress all the time is this idea of lineage, and the fact that Prince Charles Edward Stuart is going to be the Jacobite claimant, and if anything happens to him, they've got Henry in the wings waiting.

The heir and the spare

What is it?

This is a medal dating from 1729 showing on one side, the bust of Prince Charles Edward Stuart and on the other his brother Prince Henry Benedict – the heir and the spare.

Who made it?

This medal was designed by a famous medallist called Otto Hamerani, a leading court artist in the early decades of the 18th century.

In this short film Professor Viccy Coltman looks at this medal, which establishes the importance of the heir and the ‘spare’ to the on going Jacobite cause.

As the first-born son, Charles, was raised with the understanding that one day he would be a king and was educated accordingly.

In preparation for war he was sent to observe military operations at the Siege of Gaeta when he was 13 years old.

Henry, five years younger and in complete awe of his brother, was furious not to be allowed to go with Charles.

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This video is from the free online course:

Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Jacobites

The University of Edinburgh