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Skip to 0 minutes and 4 secondsWe have already looked in some detail at the five main types of binding, so here I would like to say a few words about some of the more unusual ones. Let us start with this book. As you can see, it has a cover but no spine or bound area. What you do is open it up like this. Although it is too big to open it completely, it is a map of Kyoto. This format was used for oversized items, such as extra-large maps or board games, and it is known as tatamimono (fold-up books). Usually, the cover was applied to the outermost layer of the folded-up sheet to make it more resistant and durable. Take a look at this book.

Skip to 1 minute and 28 secondsYou can see thread here, so at first sight it looks like a fukurotoji book, but where you would expect to see a crease there is none. And neither there is one on this side. In this kind of books the leaves were simply stacked and sewn together without folding them. It is perhaps the simplest method imaginable but actually it is quite rare. Despite the unusual binding, this is a sturdily-made book and it was in this format from the start. On careful inspection, the number of extant specimens is not so small, so the method must have enjoyed some degree of popularity. Next, let us consider two unusual ways of applying the cover to a book. First, look at this book.

Skip to 2 minutes and 34 secondsYou can see a cord is visible near the binding. If we turn the book, this is what the back looks like. Two holes are made on each of the two covers and a cord is passed through them which is then tied in an ornamental knot on the front cover. This is called musubitoji (knot binding). It was previously known as Yamato-toji (Yamato binding) but as this may lead to confusion with tetsuyōsō binding (which is also sometimes called Yamato binding due to its popularity in Japan), the term musubitoji is used instead.

Skip to 3 minutes and 29 secondsThis book here is bound as a fukurotoji, but older books tend to have the crease on this side, like tetsuyōsō books, so the name musubitoji describes the outer cover, not the binding as such. Another case is what you see here. This particular book was in fact made in China, but the cover was added in Japan. What's distinctive about it is that usually bound books have two covers, a front one and a back one, but in this case a single piece of material is wrapped around three sides of the book serving as front cover, spine, and back cover, It is especially noteworthy because it can be seen in relatively early, Muromachi to early Edo-period, books.

その他の装訂

珍しい装訂を挙げていくときりがないのですが、比較的見かけるものをいくつか挙げておきましょう。

畳み物(たたみもの) 

これは大きな面積を使用したいための装訂で、糊で継いで大きくした紙を縦横に規則正しく折り重ね、その表と裏に表紙を貼り付けた装訂です。

Kyō ōezu 図1. 京大絵図
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地図や図表あるいは双六(すごろく)等に用いられました。数え方の単位は「舗(ほ)」を用います。

単葉装(たんようそう)

かなり珍しいものですが、折々見かけるのが単葉装です。これは折目のない紙を重ねて綴じただけのものです。

Genji kokagami 図2. 源氏小鏡
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最も単純な装訂と言えますが、一般的なものではなかったのです。表紙は袋綴と同様に糸で綴じられていたり、結び綴じのようになっていますので、外見だけでは判断つきません。

結び綴(むすびとじ)

これは装訂というよりも表紙の付け方と説明した方が判りやすいものです。冊子体の書物の表紙の背に近い部分に、二つ組になる穴を2組以上開け、それぞれ背後から紐や束にした糸などを通して、表で飾り結びにしたものを言います。

Baien kishō 図3. 梅園奇賞
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装飾性の強いもので、綴葉装にも袋綴にも見られるものです。平安時代の12世紀には存在しています。「大和綴(やまととじ)」とも称されますが、これは綴葉装のことにも使われる詞ですので注意が必要です。

包背装(ほうはいそう)

冊子体の表紙を表裏2枚に分けず、一枚で全体を包むようにしたものです。

Embun hyakushū 図4. 延文百首〔室町末〕写
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背の部分だけを紙で包んで糊付けする部分的なものもあります。粘葉装や綴葉装でもないわけではありませんが、袋綴のものが一般的です。室町時代の16世紀頃のものに目立つようです。以上は表紙の付け方ですので、数える単位は紙の綴じ方に従うのがよいでしょう。

このように和本には少なからぬ装訂法があり、それらが使い分けられていたのです。巻子装が最も権威があったと説明しましたが、上質な紙に麗しい文字で書かれた巻子装であったとすると、そこに保存されている本文も素性の良い研究的な価値の高いものであることが期待できます。最も簡略な袋綴での本でも、作者や学者の草稿である場合もありますので、冊子体であればそれだけで素性が悪いという訳ではありませんが、期待できないものの比率が高いことは事実です。同じ作品でも装訂が異なる本があった場合、その装訂の違いの意味を考える必要があるのです。

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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 和本の世界

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