Skip to 0 minutes and 4 secondsIllustrated books made between the 16th and 17th century are called Nara ehon (Nara picture books). There are several theories as to why the name Nara figures in the denomination, but what seems certain is that the city of Nara has little to do with it. Moreover, some scholars use it to refer only to picture books, others also include scrolls under this denomination, while still others call illustrated scrolls Nara emaki (Nara picture scrolls). Their period of maximum popularity was the era between the late Muromachi and the first half of the Edo periods. After an initial phase, illustrated books also began to be bound in multi-section format (tetsuyōsō), but the most common format by far was this kind of "wide-page" fukurotoji-style book.
Skip to 1 minute and 9 secondsThen, near the end of their period of popularity, this kind of book also became popular. If you try to hold them you immediately notice that they are rather heavy. The size is the same as these books, but they are much heavier. The difference is due to the type of paper used. It may be difficult to see it, but the surface of the paper has been coated with mica powder which gives it this characteristic sheen. The original paper, one of the pictures came off here, looks like this. These additives (rock dust, clay, etc.) were mixed directly with the vegetable fibers when the paper was produced.
Skip to 2 minutes and 19 secondsThe tiny particles settle in the gaps between the fibers and make the paper smooth and polished. This type of paper was made as a substitute for the opulent hishi paper and is therefore known as maniaigami (literally, "makeshift paper"). The use of this more readily available type of paper allowed to produce book in larger quantities, which is why so many of them survive. Another thing to notice in these horizontal Nara ehon are these small needle holes just above and below the lines of text. They were used to ensure the alignment of the text and to keep the number of lines per page consistent.
Skip to 3 minutes and 40 secondsThey are called hari kentō (needle layout) or hari meyasu (needle guides) and they were first used in Nara ehon in the late 17th century. However, they can be found in non-illustrated books dating from as far back as the late 16th century. Next time you see one of these "wide" Nara ehon check if there are any needle holes.
The golden age of Nara ehon
The name Nara ehon (Nara picture books) is usually given to handwritten illustrated books produced between the late-Muromachi and early-Edo periods. Learn about the different types of binding, size, and paper used.
First, read the following article, and then watch Prof. Sasaki’s video to see examples.
Handwritten illustrated books produced between the late-Muromachi and early-Edo periods are known as Nara ehon (Nara picture books). There is no definitive theory about the origins of the term, nor about its connections with the city of Nara, but what we do know is that it dates from the Meiji period, and that these books were primarily made in the Kyoto area. They include narrative-driven works such as tales, of course, but also non-narrative texts like waka collections embellished with portraits of the poets (kasen-e) or visual representations of the poems. Although all the illustrated books we have looked at so far can be described as Nara ehon, here I want to mention a few of the non-narrative examples.
This one, Ogura hyakunin isshu (Fig.1) is a version of the famous Hyakunin isshu featuring portraits of the poets.
In this work Ōgi no sōshi (Fig.2), the poems appear next to fans decorated with a visual rendering of the poem. Such fans seem to have been made in real life, and users probably enjoyed seeing how the meaning of the poems had been expressed in images.
Some critics only use the term Nara ehon for illustrated books in book format while others also include illustrated scrolls in this category. Recently, the term Nara emaki (Nara scrolls) has been gaining ground for the latter.
Shown here is Shuten dōji (Fig.3), a Nara emaki dating from the golden age of the Nara ehon. The overall quality is particularly high, and it was no doubt meant to stand out from the mass of similar books produced at this time.
Nara ehon were usually bound in fukurotoji format. Up to the mid-17th century, the paper used was the luxurious hishi, but from this point on a cheaper variant made by adding rock dust or clay to the pulp and called maniai-gami came to be used as a substitute with increasing frequency. The name maniai-gami means literally “makeshift paper.” The illustrations in books made with this paper tend to be less detailed and to feature fewer colors, and the overall feel is that of a second-rate kind of illustrated book. This book “Hashihime” (Fig.4) is a representative example.
A lot of illustrated books made with maniai-gami have alignment marks at the top and bottom of every line. These were holes made with a needle in order to align the lines of text (a process known as hari kentō, or, needle layout). There seems to have been no fixed rule as to the number and location of the holes (sometimes they appear only on every other line, sometimes there is no hole at the top of the line, etc.). Although we do not know when the technique began to be used, it is clear that maniai-gami books were not the first books to be made using it, as the same marks can also be found in late-Muromachi period items, including non-illustrated ones.