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Skip to 0 minutes and 9 secondsIn classical music, and in rock,

Skip to 0 minutes and 12 secondsthere are three principal chords: the major triad, the minor triad, and the dominant seventh. So for example, in the key of C, the major triad consists of the root, which is C, the major third, which is E, and the fifth, which is G.

Skip to 0 minutes and 33 secondsOr played an octave lower, so that I can play the scale in the middle of the piano, C, E, G. The scale that goes with it is the well known "do, re, mi, fa, so la, ti, do" scale,

Skip to 0 minutes and 47 secondswhich we shall call the "Ionian scale" or the "Ionian mode". A mode is simply a scale which is rooted in a different position. So the Ionian mode is.

Skip to 1 minute and 1 secondThe minor triad consists of the same thing but with the flattened third. In other words, it's the root C, the flattened third, E flat, and the fifth G. And with it is a scale that starts off with the major third flattened.

Skip to 1 minute and 18 secondsBut then there is an ambiguity when we get to the sixth and seventh steps of the scale, because these may either be flattened or naturalised. For example, we may either use A flat or A - so there are two possibilities at the sixth level - or B flat or B. - so there are two possibilities at the seventh level. 2 times 2 is 4. So there are four possible scales depending on which of those choices we make for the sixth and seventh. OK, although there is some ambiguity, probably the most used scale in classical music is the harmonic minor. And the harmonic minor consists of the flattened sixth and the natural seventh.

Skip to 1 minute and 59 secondsThe flattened sixth, which is A flat And the natural seventh, which is B natural.

Skip to 2 minutes and 10 secondsAnd the third chord consists of C triad,

Skip to 2 minutes and 16 secondsadded to which you have the flattened seventh B flat, in the key of C. This is called the "dominant seventh". It's called the dominant seventh because C - the root - is the dominant of F.

Skip to 2 minutes and 32 secondsIt is a passing chord. It moves from C7 to F.

Skip to 2 minutes and 42 secondsSo a dominant seventh is a passing chord and it takes you from the dominant to the tonic, which in this case is from C7 to F. And with it the scale - I like to think of all scales relative to the Ionian scale, relative to the major scale - and it is simply the major scale with a flattened seventh -

Skip to 3 minutes and 8 secondsall the white notes apart from B flat. In fact, the notes are the same as the scale of F major, but they're rooted on C.

Skip to 3 minutes and 22 secondsHence, it's called a "mode" - a mode of F. But we'll discuss that in more detail later on.

Skip to 3 minutes and 27 secondsOK, the three chords are: the major triad.

Skip to 3 minutes and 32 secondsand the Ionian scale which goes with it. The minor triad

Skip to 3 minutes and 39 secondsand the harmonic minor which goes with it. And then the dominant seventh - the passing chord -

Skip to 3 minutes and 47 secondsand we call that the C seventh scale, namely the major scale with the flattened seventh.

The three principal chords and scales of classical music

In this video, I introduce the three principal chords and scales of classical music. These will be useful as we explore chords and scales in jazz later on.

You can download the chords referenced in the video in PDF format at the bottom of this step.

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This video is from the free online course:

Learn Jazz Piano: I. Begin with the Blues

Goldsmiths, University of London

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