Misinformation and the Spread of Fake News with many other words in a stylised word cloud.

Media Literacy

It may sound obvious, but if we only have a small learning network, our opportunities for learning may be correspondingly smaller.

Therefore, we have to proactively invest in growing our network. We can choose to do this in any way which we prefer. However, there are some things to keep in mind whatever actions we decide to take.

Firstly, a critical attitude towards the news, information and stories we might find flowing around our network, is wise. Not only are there traditional media biases to think about, but there are also some very important issues and debates to consider, and developing our media literacy can help.

According to The Centre for Media Literacy,

“Media Literacy is a 21st century approach to education. It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate and create messages in a variety of forms - from print to video to the Internet. Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy” (Thoman and Jolls, 2005, p. 190).

So what should we be aware of when interacting with online media?:

Echo chambers

Traditionally, an echo chamber is an enclosed space where the noises we make are fed directly back to us. This phenomenon applies equally in the virtual world, because we tend to interact with people who are “like us” and have similar views.

So within our own learning networks we may not be exposed to much disagreement or alternative perspectives on a topic, even if digital tools now permit our networks to be geographically diverse. We need to grow our networks widely and make connections to information we may not always agree with.

Filter bubbles

A filter bubble results from personalisation in which machine learning algorithms deployed by platforms such as Facebook selects the information presented to us based on our past behaviour. As a result, we can unknowingly become isolated from information that disagrees with our “world view”.

This TED Talk by Eli Pariser provides a clear warning of the danger of filter bubbles. It is now several years old, but the role played by social media in influencing the outcome of recent political events has only emphasised its importance. And in this short video featuring Bill Gates, he notes that we have underestimated the scale of the problem.

On the positive side, we also now have the capability to check out the facts for ourselves in a way that was difficult and time consuming in the past, through, for example, ease of access to legal proceedings or the source data of research papers.

Fake news and our ‘post truth’ world

In November 2016 Oxford Dictionaries announced that it had selected ‘post-truth’ as the word which best reflected “the passing year in language”. They defined it as

“relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief”.

Fake news (a report that is factually wrong), ought to be easy enough to detect and correct. But in a world where a single news item could potentially reach 2 billion people via Facebook, the damage can easily and quickly be done.

Sometimes a fake news item is not immediately obvious. It may be satirical (see The Onion for a good example) or it might contain some elements of truth that make the story seem believable.

Fake news headlines may also be deliberately appealing to serve as Clickbait, aimed at making you follow links or view advertising.

Any of these fake stories might have been shared across your network by someone you trust - because they are very enticing, even if we know they must be fake!

Worryingly, an investigation by BuzzFeed News indicated that fake US election news stories generated more total engagement on Facebook than top election stories from 19 major mainstream news outlets combined.

In response to growing criticism of the platform’s role in spreading mis-infomation, Facebook now plans to flag stories of questionable legitimacy with an alert that says “Disputed by 3rd party fact-checkers”.

Also, Facebook, in conjunction with FullFact, has recently released a guide on how to spot fake news.

So when growing our network we need to take a rational and questioning approach to the news and stories we come across.

Are you in a ‘chamber’ or a ‘bubble’? Or have you ever been misled or tricked by fake news?

Share this article:

This article is from the free online course:

Learning in the Network Age

University of Southampton

Get a taste of this course

Find out what this course is like by previewing some of the course steps before you join: