Prevention of conflicts
A good work environment makes people smile during discussions
Work places should engage in continuous work to create a good psychosocial work environment, thereby preventing conflicts from arising. Furthermore, it is of great importance to solve the conflicts as soon as possible, and at the lowest level, if they should they arise. Then you avoid that they escalate and take on a larger dimension.
ILO has written a brochure called “Cross cutting through decent work”. This reports points at decent work conditions as a good means for reducing the conflict level in the companies. It does not tell about conflicts directly, but tells how a work place should be organized to avoid conflicts between employers and employees. The report can be recommended.
More specific advice can be found concerning preventing conflicts. Research shows that there are four basic factors that need to be in place to successfully maintain a good work environment:
1. Clear responsibilities and roles in the company
Every work place needs to clarify who is the leader or the leaders, and to know the ranking system within the company. If there is an unclear leadership, the risk of having conflicts increases.
2. Establishment of systems and procedures
Routines on how things should be performed in the company are needed. Sometimes routines are written down, but in most companies systems exist only “by doing”. However, it is important to evaluate the work performed regularly, to be able to improve the work. This is natural in many work places, but the leadership need to know that such evaluations need input from all the workers. Changes should not be done without explanations being given to all employees.
3. Secure communication and interaction/cooperation
Regular meetings with the workers are important. Monthly staff meetings give the workers an opportunity of raising questions and receiving information on news and changes. Without such meeting arenas, conflicts easily grow. It is important to give information, but also to give everyone a possibility to respond to events and news. A meeting can have this function, while information letters and so on give only a one-way communication. Some smaller work places or units in larger companies even meet daily, for a morning tea or coffee. This type of routine is of major importance in conflict prevention, as it gives possibilities for communication on issues before they become a problem.
4. Regular provision of information and training
It is not possible to inform every worker on an individual level about everything that happens in a company. However, this should be the clear aim. If the leadership cannot give the information themselves, they should make sure information is spread; either orally or by text (posters, letters, pamphlets). If new activities are to take place, training must be given. For instance, if new computer programmes are installed; make sure everyone who shall use them are taught how to.
Good leadership is probably the most important factor in conflict avoidance. A good leader makes sure the four points above are followed in the company. In general, a good leader has the following skills:
- Making decisions
- Communicating effectively and working well with others
- Encouraging and facilitating others
- Fostering enthusiasm and vision
- Goal setting and evaluation
- Giving and receiving feedback
- Coordinating the efforts of others
- Chairing a meeting
- Being willing to accept responsibility
© University of Bergen/Authors: B.E. Moen, G. Tjalvin