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Skip to 0 minutes and 15 seconds Let me turn to genetic cloning. Cloning is a procedure to produce multiple copies of identical genes, cells, or organisms. So you can clone genes, you can clone cells, or you can clone organisms.

Skip to 0 minutes and 38 seconds It involves the transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an ovum, which then develops into an embryo. And the best example is Dolly the sheep in 1997. And in 2004, the kitten, the pet kitten, the cat was successfully cloned as well.

Skip to 1 minute and 9 seconds And of course, human cloning although is possible but it’s unethical and banned by WHO. Let’s look at this sketch. 1997 again, British scientist Wilmut, from the Roslin Institute, successfully cloned a sheep and it’s called Dolly the Sheep. Here I have a black-faced sheep and I have another white-faced sheep. If I mix them both, I most likely to end up with a speckled face for the offspring for the little lamb. How about if I want a white face? What I can do is that I take a donor cell from the black face and I remove the nucleus material and I’m going to remove the genetic material

Skip to 2 minutes and 16 seconds And I take the cell, for example, the bone marrow cell from the white face and I fuse them together and I develop the fused cell into an embryo and implant the embryo into the womb of the black face. Now because the genetic material comes exclusively from the white face, therefore the little lamb has a white face.

Skip to 2 minutes and 55 seconds Now, this is presumptive human cloning. It might draw a parallel sketch to the animal cloning. And of course, human cloning is prohibited by WHO because of medical and ethical issues. I also want to mention that Dolly the sheep actually only lived for six and a half years. which is about 50% efficiency or life expectancy rather than a normal sheep. So in terms of technology and techniques, those or still to be refined in the future. And perhaps God doesn’t want us to mess around with his creation and therefore the technique will take a long time to refine. So again I want to say human cloning is not far-fetched but ethical issue is a big debate.

Cloning of Dolly the Sheep

Genetic cloning is the process of taking genetic information from one living subject and creating identical copies of it, including genes, cells or organisms. There are three different types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning, of which reproductive cloning is widely opposed.

Steps involved in the cloning of Dolly the Sheep: Transplant a nucleus from a mammary gland cell of a Finn Dorsett sheep into the enucleated egg of a Scottish blackface ewe. The nucleus-egg combination is stimulated with electricity to fuse the two and to stimulate cell division. The egg fused with cell is developed into an embryo, which is then implanted into the womb of the black-faced sheep

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Pharmacotherapy: Understanding Biotechnology Products

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