ERAS - The key points
In this article Professor Joshua Bloomstone outlines some of the evidence base for enhanced recovery, as well as the key treatment points during the pathway. Professor Bloomstone is Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology at the University of Arizona College of Medicine, Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, and is affiliated to the Banner Thunderbird Medical Center, Glendale, AZ, and Valley Anesthesiology Consultants, Inc. Phoenix.
234 million major operations are performed worldwide annually.  Of these, 1:5 patients ,  are expected to suffer post-surgical complications that are known to increase human suffering, hospital length of stay, cost, and decrease long term survival., , 
Several evidence-based perioperative care elements exist that are thought to reduce post-surgical complications by 50%,  length of stay by 30%,  and cost. ,  Collectively, these elements form the basis of published enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) guidelines  now implemented in over 20 countries.  It is currently believed that strict adherence to all guideline elements yields the best outcomes,  however, it remains unclear which of these elements, or combination of elements, provides the greatest impact on post-surgical outcomes. ,  Furthermore, the importance of individual elements has changed over time as exampled by the apparent reduced impact of goal-directed fluid therapy when incorporated into an ERAS program. 
The original ERAS question, posed by Henrik Kehlet in 1997, was whether mitigation of the surgical stress response led to accelerated convalescence and improved surgical outcomes. Dr. Kehlet’s work focused largely on patient education and activation and attenuation of the surgical stress response through aggressive pain relief modalities, early mobilization, and early enteral nutrition. 
Today, over 20 ERAS elements have been described and are detailed below. 
- Patient and carer education relative to their roles and expected milestones within the enhanced recovery pathway
- Individualized patient risk-assessment
- Optimize medical management
- Ensure 12.5% carbohydrate beverage loading within 2 hours of surgery
- Ensure adherence to ASA nil-by-mouth guidelines allowing for clear liquid consumption until 2 hours prior to surgery
- Assure multimodal, narcotic-sparing analgesia including regional anaesthesia
- Assure multimodal postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis
- Assure goal-directed fluid therapy including goal-directed haemostasis management
- Assure that appropriate SCIP measures have been completed including maintenance of normothermia
- Assure pain management is adequate to allow for early ambulation
- Assure continued postoperative nausea and vomiting management to allow for early alimentation
- Post-operative patient follow-up including the post-acute care phase
- Audit all steps for compliance, review and process improvement
Broadly, these elements focus on patient engagement, pre-surgical medical optimization including smoking cessation,  anesthetic protocols geared at perioperative fluid management, temperature control, multi-modal narcotic sparing analgesia, and postoperative nausea and emesis prophylaxis.
Key surgical elements include minimally invasive surgery, the avoidance of dehydrating bowel preparations where appropriate, early removal or avoidance of tubes, drains, and catheters, and early postoperative ambulation and alimentation.  Though expert consensus grades the majority of these elements as “strong” [Table II], recent meta-analysis and systematic reviews on the topic regard the data supporting the underlying elements as often poor and/or subject to bias. ,  Nonetheless, enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) with as few as two elements have shown value. 
Table 1. Expert consensus grading of elements of enhanced recovery 
ERPs have also shown benefit in select patients undergoing outpatient surgery including colectomy,  and thus are no longer simply a consideration for patients undergoing major inpatient surgery.
Implementing protocolled, evidence-based care pathways is in line with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s triple aim and appears to achieve its goals within the surgical patient population.
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