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Skip to 0 minutes and 24 secondsWelcome back to this course. Starting from this section, we would like to show you how to conduct different kind of research. And I will show you different research papers, and demonstrate how to conduct different research with different approaches. So the first one, how to conduct qualitative research. There are many different ways to conduct qualitative research. And in this section, I would like to show you two different types. The first one, I would like to show you to use the direct coding or direct themes code from the data, and use them directly in the paper writing. The first paper I would like to share with you is about the Spend less and Experience More, Understanding the Social Contact in Airbnb Context.

Skip to 1 minute and 16 secondsThis is an interesting paper talking about Airbnb, and this is a very popular accommodation website nowadays.

Skip to 1 minute and 25 secondsThis is the outline I would like to show you in this unit. We start with the introduction, followed by the literature review, methodology, findings, discussion and implications, finally concluded. Introduction. As we know Airbnb is getting more and more popular nowadays. This is the most successful peer-to-peer model in the hospitality industry. It is a unique platform for online community marketplace for renting accommodations from private individuals. So in this map, it shows you the developing trend of Airbnb platform. In total, we have over two hundred million users worldwide, covering sixty-five thousand cities, and also 191 countries worldwide. It's interesting we also have 1500 castles of the Airbnb platform. So it can provide you some unique experiences.

Skip to 2 minutes and 32 secondsSo this is the interesting point to attract our research team to conduct this research. It's about social contact in Airbnb. As we know, Airbnb is different from the hotel accommodations, for example, Airbnb properties, they are individual owned. So you can have many opportunities to interact with different people. And we think this is quite interesting. Since interactions or social contact may provide us different experiences for our guests. And here's now our research problems. After some initially review, and find from those industry information, we realize that the majority of the literature is exploring the contact between tourist and host. Airbnb calls for more in-depth investigations to help understand this new platform.

Skip to 3 minutes and 28 secondsWe also want to know how do individuals behave under this unique form of accommodation. Finally, we think limited efforts have been made to explore the antecedents and consequences of social contact. Here's our objectives. For this study, we would like to explore the social contact between guest and the possible groups; to identify the antecedents, also the consequences of social contact for Airbnb guest; finally, with those findings, we would like to provide implications for the industry and communities. Ok. So with those objectives, let's start with literature review. And for this study, we would like to cover different areas in our literature, for example, social media. Social media has had considerable effect on consumer behavior, attitude, opinion and evaluations.

Skip to 4 minutes and 30 secondsSocial travel sites and services provide user generated travel review for travelers. Airbnb described itself as social website, as they can link the users with their Airbnb owners in this platform. So they can communicate, they can exchange information on this platform. The second part of this literature, we review those reasons, the motivations for our guests to choose the Airbnb. According to our literature review, we found travelers look for new and unique ways of traveling. Travelers also enjoy sharing their experiences on social media. And Airbnb allows travelers to live like locals and share their experiences on social media. And obviously, Airbnb is cheaper than the traditional hotel sectors. It also provides local advice and authentic experiences for our Airbnb users.

Skip to 5 minutes and 32 secondsAnd most of the Airbnb properties locate in the urban area which is very convenient for the tourist to travel around. The final part in the literature review would like to know more about the social contact in tourism. We have different research talking about social contact but not really that much. For example, from one of study that was conducted by Fan etc. 2017, it explored the tourist-host contact and also described tourist behavior in the destinations. So in this study, they tried to analyze tourist behavior according to their different categories. In this study, they trend to figure out tourist purposes, their determinants to contact, also the activities intensity, impact, and finally the attitude of their contact with the local people.

Skip to 6 minutes and 30 secondsAnd according to those characteristics, they try to categories those tourists into five types, starting from dependents, conservatives, explorers, criticizers, and also the belonging seekers. Some other research also mentioned about their influences on their travel experience. For example, the social oriented contact may reduce the perceived cultural distance. Well, the service oriented contact tend to enlarge the perceived distance between the tourists and residents. After the comprehensive literature review, here's a concern we mentioned at the beginning of this section. And according to those concerns, here's the objective we developed, and we also presented at the beginning of this section. And here is the methodology.

Skip to 7 minutes and 27 secondsIn this study, since we're trying to explore the different types of contact and different group of contacts, so it is very exploratory in nature, and then we choose to use qualitative research approach and now we're going to explore that. And as a result, we recruited 2 focus group interviews, and 7-8 participants in one group. Apart from that, we also recruited 25 in-depth interviews. The participants were from Mainland China and also Hong Kong. Convenient sampling was used to recruit the respondents, and those focus groups and interviews are conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese depending on the respondents' mother language. And for each of the focus group, it lasted around 60 minutes. And for the in-depth interviews was around 30 minutes.

Skip to 8 minutes and 24 secondsAll those interviews and focus groups were well recorded. And then we transcribed it into those text.

Skip to 8 minutes and 33 secondsFor this study, we use software Nvivo11 to analyze all the data with the thematic analysis.

Using coding and themes in qualitative research (1)

In this video, Dr. Fan will share with you how to code through a study of social contact in Airbnb context.

What are the motivations for guests to choose Airbnb?

According to the characteristics, what are the five categories of tourists?

Share your thoughts in the comment section below.

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Research Methods in Tourism Studies

Nankai University