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Skip to 0 minutes and 24 seconds Welcome back. I believe in last section we had a better understanding of different research paradigms. And if you can remember, we mentioned about two major research paradigms. The first one is about positivism, and the second one is about the constructivism or interpretivism. And we also understand the quantitative research are mainly following those positive research paradigms, and for those qualitative researches we are mainly following those interpretivism research paradigm. And in this section, we would like to share more about these differences between the two research methods, quantitative and qualitative approaches. If we have a look of these two tables, they demonstrate the differences between the two major research methods.

Skip to 1 minute and 19 seconds For the quantitative research method, we test the hypothesis that the researcher begins with. The concepts are in the form of distinct variables. Measures are systematically created before data collection and are standardized.

Skip to 1 minute and 40 seconds Data are in the form of numbers from precise measurement. Theory is largely causal and is deductive. Procedures are standard and replication is frequent, which means a good study, a good quantitative study can be replicated in some other places with minor changes. Analysis proceeds by using statistics, tables or charts, and discussing how what they show relates to the hypothesis. Regarding the qualitative research method, we try to capture and discover meaning, once the researchers became immersed in the data. Comparatively, for those quantitative research, we understand the researchers have a limited or have a minimum involvement in this research. They are using the software and using this data to tell you a story.

Skip to 2 minutes and 40 seconds However, for the qualitative research, researchers, actually, they are quite immersed in this process and using their own ways to interpret data. Also concepts are in the form of the themes, motifs, generalization and taxonomies.

Skip to 3 minutes and 1 second Measures are created in an ad hoc manner and are often specific to the individual settings or researchers. Compared with the quantitative research, if we want to explain those constraints, for example, the Chinese tourists go to the domestic destinations, and compared with those international destinations, I guess those findings or those constraints might be very different, right? Data in the form of words and images from documents, observations and transcripts, theory can be causal or non-causal, and it’s often inductive. Research procedures are particular and replication is very rare. Analysis proceeds by extracting themes or generalizations from evidence and organizing data to present a coherent consistent picture.

Skip to 4 minutes and 5 seconds Now let’s have a look of those trends in tourism and hospitality. Are we using more in the quantitative research or the qualitative research? If we had a look of this pie chart, fifty-nine percent of all the studies are quantitative. Comparatively, we have nineteen percent of the studies using the qualitative research approach. And we also have some other studies using the review or theoretical based paper. And six percent of all the papers are using mixed method. And in addition, tourist or visitors’ studies are strongly quantitative research. Destination studies are more likely than other topics to use qualitative design. Tourism planning is more likely to use the mixed method. Journal of Travel Research has the highest proportion of the quantitative research.

Skip to 5 minutes and 8 seconds And Annals of Tourism Research has the highest proportion of the qualitative research, which is sixty percent. Quantitative studies still dominating hospitality and tourism research, although the number of qualitative studies is increasing. The mixed method approach is getting more popular, and we’ll also cover that in this chapter. Now, we had some basic understanding of the two different approaches. So actually what is the advantages and disadvantages of each approach? So now let’s have a detail look. For the qualitative research, it is very useful during the early stages of a study due to its exploratory nature. We have the freedom to let study unfold more naturally.

Skip to 6 minutes and 2 seconds And we have more detailed and rich data, which means we got those data such as written descriptions, photographs, audios or the facial expressions. We use those contexts and social meanings to understand how they affect those individuals. Well, on the other side, qualitative research may also have some disadvantages. For example, researchers are heavily involved in the process, There are subjective views of the study and its participants. Sometimes those kinds of views are biased compared with the quantitative research. And different researchers, they have their different ways to interpret data. And as we mentioned, those qualitative research can be very time consuming and labor consuming, considering those stage like data collection, transcription, analysis, and doing those interpretation.

Skip to 7 minutes and 5 seconds Comparatively, for those quantitative study, we have the following points. For example, we use the measurable data and with those statistics to help display those findings. And for quantitative research, we are able to explore those relationships among independent and dependent variables. Compared with the qualitative research, quantitative research is kind like objective, since the researchers themselves are getting less involved. And we use the data to tell the story. And in quantitative research, we are testing those hypotheses. And the hypotheses are mainly from those literature. Well, those are disadvantages of quantitative research. Quantitative research is argued to ignore the context of the study or experiment, for example, those research background, different people or the ethnics.

Skip to 8 minutes and 8 seconds So it has little meaning about those individual differences. Also conducting a quantitative research is quite demanding on sample, for example, those sampling methods, sample size, generalization. Can you achieve that or have the access of those data? Or do you have the money or the labor to conduct those kinds of survey?

Skip to 8 minutes and 36 seconds Last, quantitative research is largely related to those statistics, which means it really relies heavily on those data. So, for some of the studies of researchers may argue quantitative research is heavily data driven. This is the end of the section. So, I hope you can have a better understanding of the differences between these two major research approaches.

Differences between the two approaches

In this video, you will have a better understanding of the differences between these two major research approaches.

By the end of this video, can you share with us the differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods you have learned?

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Research Methods in Tourism Studies

Nankai University