Want to keep learning?

This content is taken from the National STEM Learning Centre's online course, The Science of Learning. Join the course to learn more.

Additional resources, references and acknowledgements

Throughout this course you have encountered references to journal articles and other resources in the text. For ease, we’ve collated the full references here. We have also worked with a number of people in the development of this course and would like to gratefully acknowledge their contributions.

Additional resources


This course has been developed by Professor Paul Howard-Jones (University of Bristol) and Professor Tim Jay (Sheffield Hallam University) funded by the Wellcome Trust. The course has been co-authored by Karen Hornby and Rachel Jackson from the National STEM Learning Centre.

We would like to acknowledge the contributions of teachers and other colleagues from the National STEM Learning Centre who participated in the course development workshops. We would also like to thank those teachers who contributed to the video interviews for openly discussing their teaching practices and how they use evidence to support learning in their classrooms.

There are a number of images used with permission from the copyright holders. Please refer to the copyright acknowledgements on the relevant steps.

The brain scan that appears in the introduction video in step 1.1 is from The Lancet, Vol. 359, Borgstein, J. and Grootendorst, C, Half a brain, p.473, copyright (2002), with permission from Elsevier.


Week 1. Busting myths

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E. & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review (Report no. 041543). Learning and Skills Research Centre, London.

Dekker, S., Lee, N. C., Howard-Jones, P. A. & Jolles, J. (2012). Neuromyths in education: Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers. Frontiers in Psychology, 3.

Howard-Jones, P. A. (2010). Introducing Neuroeducational Research: Neuroscience, Education and the Brain from Contexts to Practice. Routledge.

Howard-Jones, P. A. (2014). Neuroscience and education: myths and messages. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 817-824.

Royal Society (2011). Brain Waves Module 2: Neuroscience:implications for education and lifelong learning. Royal Society, London.

Week 2. Engagement for learning

Adcock, R. A. (2006). Reward-motivated learning: mesolimbic activation precedes memory formation. Neuron, 50, 507-517.

Beilock, S. L., Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G. & Levine, S. C. (2010). Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U.S.A., 107, 1860-1863.

Dawes, L., Littleton, K., Mercer N., Wegwrif, R., Warwick, P. (n.d.). Thinking Together in the Primary Classroom. UK: The Open University. Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology.

Fales, C. L., Becerril, K. E., Luking, K. R. & Barch, D. M. (2010). Emotional-stimulus processing in trait anxiety is modulated by stimulus valence during neuroimaging. Cogn. Emot., 24, 200-222.

Farooqi, I. S. et al. (2007). Leptin regulates striatal regions and human eating Behavior. Science 317, 1355-1355.

Koepp, M. J. et al. (1998). Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game. . Nature 393, 266-268.

Filimon, F., Nelson, J. D., Hagler, D. J. & Sereno, M. I. (2007). Human cortical representations for reaching: Mirror neurons for execution, observation, and imagery. NeuroImage 37, 1315-1328.

Furukawa, E. et al. (2014). Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD. Plos One 9, 9.

Gaastra, G. F., Groen, Y., Tucha, L. & Tucha, O. (2016). The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review. Plos One 11, 19.

Howard-Jones, P. A. (2014). Neuroscience and education: myths and messages. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 817-824.

Howard-Jones, P. A., Jay, T., Mason, A. & Jones, H. (2016). Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network. Frontiers in Psychology 6, 16.

Izuma, K., Saito, D. N. & Sadato, N. (2008). Processing of social and monetary rewards in the human striatum. Neuron 58, 284-294.

Ker, H. W. (2016). The impacts of student-, teacher- and school-level factors on mathematics achievement: an exploratory comparative investigation of Singaporean students and the USA students. Educational Psychology 36, 254-276.

Knutson, B., Adams, C. M., Fong, G. W. & Hommer, D. (2001). Anticipation of monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience 21, 1-5.

Kratzig, G. P. & Arbuthnott, K. D. (2006). Perceptual learning style and learning proficiency: A test of the hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology 98, 238-246.

Littleton, Karen; Mercer, Neil; Dawes, Lyn; Wegerif, Rupert; Rowe, Denise and Sams, Claire (2005). Talking and thinking together at Key Stage 1. Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 25(2) 167 -182.

Rizzolatti, G. & Craighero, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience 27, 169-192.

Schilbach, L. et al. (2010). Minds Made for Sharing: Initiating Joint Attention Recruits Reward-related Neurocircuitry. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 22, 2702-2715.

Schomaker, J. & Meeter, M. (2015). Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance and surprise on brain and cognition. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 55, 268-279.

van Duijvenvoorde, A. C. K., Zanolie, K., Rombouts, S., Raijmakers, M. E. J. & Crone, E. A. (2008). Evaluating the negative or valuing the positive? Neural mechanisms supporting feedback-based learning across development. Journal of Neuroscience 28, 9495-9503.

Week 3. Building knowledge and understanding

Brod, G., Werkle-Bergner, M. & Shing, Y. L. (2013). The influence of prior knowledge on memory: a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 7, 13.

Buchweitz, A., Mason, R. A., Tomitch, L. M. B. & Just, M. A. (2009). Brain activation for reading and listening comprehension: An fMRI study of modality effects and individual differences in language comprehension. Psychology & neuroscience 2, 111-123.

Butler, A. J., James, T. W., & James, K. H. (2011). Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(11), 3515-3528.

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E. & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review (Report no. 041543). Learning and Skills Research Centre, London.

Fischer, U., Moeller, K., Bientzle, M., Cress, U. & Nuerk, H.-C. (2011). Sensori-motor spatial training of number magnitude representation. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 18, 177–183.

Horvath, J. C. (2014). The Neuroscience of PowerPoint (TM). Mind Brain and Education 8, 137-143.

Johnson-Glenberg, M. C., Birchfield, D. A., Tolentino, L. & Koziupa, T. (2014) Collaborative embodied learning in mixed reality motion-capture environments: two science studies. Journal of Educational Psychology 106, 86–104.

Kontra, C., Lyons, D. J., Fischer, S. M. & Beilock, S. L. (2015). Physical Experience Enhances Science Learning. Psychological Science 26, 737-749.

Pickering, S.J. (2006), Working Memory and Education. London, Elsevier Academic Press.

Shing, Y. L. & Brod, G. (2016). Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education. Mind, Brain, and Education 10, 153-161.

Wais, P. E. & Gazzaley, A. (2014). Distractibility during retrieval of long-term memory: domain-general interference, neural networks and increased susceptibility in normal aging. Frontiers in Psychology 5, 12.

Week 4. Consolidation of learning

Dworak, M., Schierl, T., Bruns, T., & Struder, H. K. (2007). Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children. Pediatrics, 120(5), 978-985.

Maquet, P. et al. (2000). Experience dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep. Nature Neuroscience 3, 831-836.

McDaniel, M. A., Roediger, H. L. & McDermott, K. B. (2007). Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 14, 200-206.

Roediger, H. L. & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). Test-enhanced learning - Taking memory tests improves long-term retention. Psychological Science 17, 249-255.

Roseshine, B. (2010). Principles of Instruction. International Academy of Education, UNESCO.

Wirebring, L. K. et al. (2015). Lesser Neural Pattern Similarity across Repeated Tests Is Associated with Better Long-Term Memory Retention. Journal of Neuroscience 35, 9595-9602.

Week 5. The science of learning in your classroom

Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H. & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievment across an adolescent transition: A longtitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development 78, 246-263.

Dekker, S. & Jolles, J. (2015). Teaching About “Brain and Learning” in High School Biology Classes: Effects on Teachers’ Knowledge and Students’ Theory of Intelligence. Frontiers in Psychology 6, 8.

Maguire, E. A. et al. (2000). Navigation related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 97, 4398-4403. Martensson, J. et al. (2012). Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning. Neuroimage 63, 240-244.

Paunesku, D. et al. (2015). Mind-Set Interventions Are a Scalable Treatment for Academic Underachievement. Psychological Science 26, 784-793.

Supekar, K. et al. (2013). Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 8230-8235..

Wenger, E. & Lovden, M. (2016). The Learning Hippocampus: Education and Experience-Dependent Plasticity. Mind Brain and Education 10, 171-183.

Share this article:

This article is from the free online course:

The Science of Learning

National STEM Learning Centre