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This content is taken from the BSAC & Imperial College London's online course, Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance: A Social Science Approach. Join the course to learn more.

Skip to 0 minutes and 7 secondsThank you for participating in this course with us. We hope that it's been of use to you and that you've been able to learn from some of the practical examples that we have shared from you, from across the world, both in how antimicrobial stewardship programmes are implemented, but also how social science research methods can be used to develop more sustainable and more contextually fit interventions. We also hope that you've been able to learn about the role of the wider stakeholders within antimicrobial stewardship including the role of the patients, the public, and policymakers in this field. And we hope that you've been able to learn from each other as you've progressed along this course.

Skip to 0 minutes and 43 secondsAs you can see, social science is broad. It covers multiple disciplines, multiple methods and techniques, and provides invaluable theories and practical approaches to how we can look at antimicrobial resistance in a different way. So the course is open for a few more weeks. And we encourage you during this period to go back and revisit any of the sections that you thought were of particular interest. And have a think about how this may apply to you in your area of practise. Please do continue to share your comments with other learners, because we think this is a valuable way to actually learn from each other, as well. Thank you very much for joining us.

End of course summary

Thank you for completing this course on Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance: A Social Science Approach.

Group image of all who took part in creating the course

The findings from this course have several implications at different levels:

Government and policy makers

International organisations that aim to promote global AMS should consider the following when developing recommendations and guidelines which set expectations on countries, government and individuals in relation to AMS:

  • Prior to setting AMS recommendations and expectations it is imperative to define the structural, process and outcome indicators for antimicrobial stewardship in different healthcare settings.
  • To promote interdisciplinary teamwork and include pharmacists and nurses, depending on the available healthcare workforce in the different parts of the world, in medical decision making to promote medication safety and AMS.
  • To improve engagement with the government sector and regulatory bodies on the need for the implementation of AMS in different cultural settings.
  • To improve engagement with the public sector and professional bodies on the need for the implementation of AMS in different cultural settings.
  • To drive culture change in antibiotic prescribing decision-making amongst vulnerable populations including within surgical specialities across low- and middle-income countries.

Implications for healthcare organisations

Hospital Chiefs and managers who are responsible for the organisational delivery of care and quality improvement should consider the following recommendations in relation to AMS:

  • There needs to be organisational leadership and champions to support AMS.
  • There needs to be visible support for AMS champions from the organisational leadership.
  • The medical and surgical specialities need to be targeted in AMS campaigns and, AMS interventions should be targeted to the context in which they are being implemented.
  • Interdisciplinary teamwork should be emphasised, and nurses and pharmacists included in efforts in addition to doctors.
  • The differences in culture and teamwork within specialities should be addressed and accounted for as part of AMS interventions.
  • AMS interventions should be targeting the antibiotic decision-making behavioural norms in different specialities e.g. surgery and medicine.

Implications for AMS experts

Doctors, infectious diseases specialists, medical microbiology and allied healthcare professionals (including pharmacists and nurses where they already have a role) tasked with leading AMS interventions should consider the following:

  • It is important to engage with the leadership within specialities in order to implement successful AMS.
  • Understanding the differing cultural norms, values and practices amongst specialities and addressing them in contextually driven interventions should be a central tenet of AMS.
  • Encouraging the correct hospital-wide use of the available diagnostic skills to diagnose infections should be a key component of AMS campaigns.
  • Identifying the gaps in the healthcare workforce involvement in AMS and encouraging a collectivist and interdisciplinary approach that supports involvement of pharmacists and nurses in AMS should be the norm.

Thank you for your participation in this course, we hope you enjoyed it and find the content useful in your practice. Please let us know your feedback in the comments below.

If you enjoyed this course you may wish to sign up for Utilising Social Science and Behaviour Change in Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Improving Healthcare. This course provides a more in-depth look at the theory of how social science can be used in antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

You may find a full list of courses created by BSAC here.

Membership to the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) is free and a great way to keep up-to-date with antimicrobial resistance and stewardship practices.

A reminder (if you haven’t already done so in step 1.10) to please share more information about your experiences and/or knowledge of antimicrobial stewardship activities in your organisation by completing this 10 minute survey from Imperial College London. This will provide invaluable insights into the range of practices and opportunities across the world that can be shared widely to improve antimicrobial stewardship.

You can find the optional research survey here.

Thank you very much,

Esmita Charani and Monsey McLeod, National Institute of Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance

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Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance: A Social Science Approach


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