Skip to 0 minutes and 3 seconds KAREN BRUNYEE: Hello and welcome to the Q&A session for Primary Science– Getting Started. I hope you’ve enjoyed the last few weeks of the online course. Sarah and myself are here to answer some of the questions that you put in the final stage of the course. There were a lot of questions, Thanks ever so much for those. So we just picked a few that came up a lot, and we chose those to answer. So unfortunately, if your question doesn’t get answered, please do feel free to contact us through STEM Learning and we’ll try and answer it if it’s a real need of yours.
Skip to 0 minutes and 38 seconds So one of the questions that came up a lot was people were really interested in the concept cartoons– how to use them in class, what sort of ideas. Lots of people say, “where’d you get them from?” The best way I’ve found, with concept cartoons, is when I first started using them, I did have a book full of them. And you can find that, if you just have a look for concept cartoons, you can find the book. But then I started developing my own. So I had them in a particular unit– for example, the circulatory system.
Skip to 1 minute and 12 seconds And I’ve come up with a statement that I thought might ask the children what their understanding was, and then leave the blanks for them to have a go. I used either pictures of my own class or I’ve started using a puppet and toys that I have in my home to develop my own concept cartoons. And it works really well, because then you can target the questions that you want to know the answers to. So if, for example, you’re in your class and you’re thinking, there’s that statement of the curriculum, I’m not quite sure if they understand it. You can set a concept cartoon up to answer that.
Skip to 1 minute and 49 seconds So if it’s at the beginning of the unit, and you want to know exactly what the children already know you could pick a statement from the national curriculum and have three blanks. Another quite nice way to do concept cartoons is to have a statement that’s not quite there, it’s got a small misconception, maybe another one with a small misconception, and then one that is the correct statement, and then asked the children which one they agree with. A maybe have a blank one if they don’t agree with any of them, and then you’ve got a real clue as to what your children really do understand.
Skip to 2 minutes and 23 seconds SARAH DAGNELL: And lots of you also asked about whether children should know which type of inquiry they are doing and if you should cover all the inquiry types in one topic. Well, in terms of whether the children should know about the inquiry types that they’re covering, the answer is yes, but it depends on which year group that they’re in as to how much of that they need to do for themselves. For example, then in the national curriculum, it does say that at Key Stage 1, that children should be helped to develop their understanding of scientific ideas by using different types of scientific inquiry to answer questions.
Skip to 2 minutes and 58 seconds So by that, we would expect that you might be doing something like an observation at the time, and the children would hear those words “observation” every time. They’re been directed towards those types of investigations and they’re starting to hear those terms and understand what they mean. By lower Key Stage 2, the national curriculum says that they should ask their own questions about what they observe and make some decisions about which types of scientific inquiry are more likely to be the best ways of answering them.
Skip to 3 minutes and 29 seconds So in lower Key Stage 2, we’d be looking for the children to know what the inquiry types are so that they could have a little bit of an idea about when they’ve got a question, how would they answer it? Which type of inquiry would they choose? And they’re starting to be directed by the teacher toward those, so they’re starting to make those decisions. By upper Key Stage 2, the children need to be able to select the most appropriate inquiry types to answer the questions. So they need a full understanding of what the inquiries are so they choose the right ones. In terms of inquiry types and whether you cover them all in each topic, that would be impossible.
Skip to 4 minutes and 8 seconds You need to cover the inquiry types over a year. So if you were to plan that out on the planning grid that we showed you earlier in the course, you’d be able to make sure that you had a good selection of the five different types of inquiry throughout the whole year. Some topics lend themselves brilliantly to some types of inquiry, and they really don’t lend themselves well to others. And I wouldn’t worry about that if that’s the case.
Skip to 4 minutes and 32 seconds KAREN BRUNYEE: So the next few questions came in from teachers who were interested in what science might look like in the early years– so that’s children aged three to five. What’s good practise? What should they be doing? What sorts of things would good science that like in an early years classroom? Well really, science, in the early years, should be based on what the children’s interests are and follow their own questions and their own explorations. We, as teachers and practitioners, should be there to provide the stimulus, the ideas, the engagement, but not specifically the science, which is quite hard to do when you’re a teacher and you’re thinking, wow, I’ve got these particular goals that I need to meet.
Skip to 5 minutes and 13 seconds But what is so lovely about the early years is the characteristics of effective learning that we need to be sharing with the children are science– they’re the working scientifically skills. So if you’re meeting those, if you’re helping the children to develop their perseverance, their group work, their problem solving skills, then you are getting those children to work as scientists. Now there are statements in the early years framework that say we should be looking at observing the seasons, to be going outside, to be looking at materials, and all those sorts of things. If we set up our classroom in a way that our continuous provision provides those examples for the children, then they’ll be hopefully getting that science.
Skip to 5 minutes and 55 seconds And our job is then to sit alongside them, play alongside them, to guide them through “I wonder” statements. You know, well, I wonder if that apple will sink. What do you think? And then letting the children engage. It is about providing those resources. A really good resourced EYFS classroom, lets the children be scientists all the time. And then we build on their prior experience, we develop their curiosity, we just stand alongside the children and support them.
Skip to 6 minutes and 31 seconds Really nice examples of enhancing your continuous provision are things like if you’ve read a story, for example, a really good one, The Gingerbread Man, is providing, maybe, in the water tray some gingerbreads for the children to dip into the water and pretend that they’re crossing the river. If you’re reading The Three Little Pigs, can you provide different materials that children could build the three little pig’s house from. And then, how hard do we have to blow to get those houses to fall down? It’s really about the children’s daily work, the children’s daily play, and seeing the science opportunities and going, hmmm, I wonder?
Skip to 7 minutes and 8 seconds SARAH DAGNELL: We’ve also had a lot of questions about teaching a whole investigation. Earlier in the course, we discussed about how you needed to be very focused when you’re getting the children to work scientifically and running practical investigations. For lots of you, you’ve been running full investigations and you’re wondering whether you shouldn’t do that anymore. Now, it’s not so much about running the whole investigation. It would be a shame to get to show children an investigation and not get them to carry that out. However, it is about being focused on the working scientifically that you’re doing. So if you’re in English lesson, you would just practise one skill at a time, such as paragraphs.
Skip to 7 minutes and 55 seconds The focus would be on that, the teaching would be on that, and then the assessment of the piece of writing would most likely be on that. We wouldn’t be asking them to do a piece of writing and teaching them about spelling, punctuation, paragraphs, adjectives in the same session and then expecting them to evidence them all. It’s impossible, the children couldn’t possibly do that and you couldn’t teach that as well as you possibly could. So in science, it’s exactly the same– if we are going to run an investigation, we need to choose which skill it is that we’re focusing on. And it is that one that you are teaching the children and that you would be evidencing at the end.
Skip to 8 minutes and 34 seconds So you could choose to do your investigation a number of ways. You could run the whole investigation but only guide that bit– that is, that is the teaching focus. You could decide to actually just do that bit of the investigation. It’s whichever works best in the time that you’ve got, and also what works best for the objective that you’re doing. In the ASC magazine, there was a wonderful picture that was put in there that was a working scientifically butterfly. And I think this is a great way that teachers can actually plan and then show the children what skills it is that they’re using.
Skip to 9 minutes and 12 seconds The idea with the working scientifically butterfly is that, you would have that up on your wall laminated. And that, when you were planning, you’d look carefully at the different sections and choose which of the skills you’re going to focus on. So it could be Questioning. You would make sure that when you do your lesson, that you tell the children that that is the skill that you’re focusing on. And again, you would colour that in so you could see that you’ve covered your questioning. It’s absolutely fine if want to do one investigation and do it over a number of sessions so that you can focus on a different working scientifically skill in each session. That would be absolutely fine.
Skip to 9 minutes and 53 seconds I know a couple of you have questioned whether you should be doing that. You could also use your maths and English lessons to pick up some of those skills that fall very nicely within those topics. And actually, having the time to use your English time to write your conclusions would actually be of value.
Skip to 10 minutes and 13 seconds KAREN BRUNYEE: So this next set of questions follows on from Sarah’s explanation there on investigations. And the question was, “if you’ve got a class– and they’re all working away so you’ve got about 30 children– how do you stop from going off on a tangent that you hadn’t planned?” And I’ve got personal experience with this. I was teaching a lesson on filtration. And I had set the task. I’ve got some dirty water at the front of the classroom and the challenge was which group can get the cleanest by the end of the session? I didn’t tell them what they needed to do. They needed to pick their own equipment, they needed to sort of plan it.
Skip to 10 minutes and 48 seconds And I actually had my head teacher in watching me in this lesson. And so, I was wandering around and he was sat with a particular group, and they started talking. We’d introduced it as a hook of, I had just come back from Africa. And I said, the children in Africa struggle to filter their water to get clean water to drink. So what sorts of things could we do to help them? And the children in the group that he was sat with were actually talking about whether giraffes licking the water would make a huge issue for cleaning the water and whether we needed to think about giraffe saliva and stuff like this.
Skip to 11 minutes and 22 seconds And he said he was really worried that they were going off this very strange tangent. But what I had done is, I’d set them off. They were having a chat, they were planning. And then I stopped them. So it was very quick, they had about three or four minutes to just chat. Then they all had to feed back to me. So it was kind of like what we used to call in my school, a mini plenary. So I would stop the whole class and I would just say, OK, tell me what you’re doing. And each one of you, what’s your idea? It had to be quick two seconds, we couldn’t spend the whole lesson with them feeding back.
Skip to 11 minutes and 51 seconds And then I could go, ah, you’re on the wrong tangent. Or I just go, oh, you know when you were listening to Ben’s ideas, did you pick anything up from there? So that there were all then going, [GASPS] ahh, that’s where we’re going. And then I set them off again. And then again in five minutes, oh, tell me what you’ve done. And then I’d say, OK, 10 minutes, you need to report back on this. So I was always keeping the children on task. They we’re always going on the way that I wanted them to. They might be having different investigations, they might have different ideas. But I was always aware of what they were.
Skip to 12 minutes and 21 seconds And then if they were quite going off on the wrong way, I could pull that group back to what I wanted. It’s about just knowing, yes, you can’t work with all 10 groups in one lesson. But you can just get them to feedback to you really quickly so that you will go, ah, that person isn’t quite where I want them to be. OK, another child to go. It’s like, ah, you’re doing a brilliant job. Can you go and share that with that group and share with them what they’re doing and they might pick up some bits. It is about using timers, using the roles. Making sure everyone’s really clear on the roles that they’ve got in their group.
Skip to 12 minutes and 58 seconds Maybe having a particular child whose role it is to report to the teacher– or the teaching assistant if you’re lucky enough to have one– what it is they’re busy doing. And then you can pick up whether they’re on the track that you want them to be.
Skip to 13 minutes and 12 seconds SARAH DAGNELL: One of the most common questions that we had was about, how do we assess working scientifically? This comes up time and time again, which always surprises us, actually. Because I think when it comes to science, assessments suddenly seems like this scary thing. But actually, it is exactly the same is that we would do in all of our other core subjects.
Skip to 13 minutes and 36 seconds If you do need any extra help with this, we do have a great additional MOOC that you can have a little look at that focuses on assessment for learning, which is one of the things that we really do use in our science when we are doing our assessments. And so I would thoroughly recommend getting yourself involved with that course, as well. When it does come to assessing working scientifically, though, we need to make sure, as I mentioned earlier, that we are clear with our focus and that we’re actually planning for assessment. Many times, we actually think, oh, that’s a great investigation, and run it without actually thinking about what it is that we’re wanting to teach.
Skip to 14 minutes and 16 seconds Or what is the value behind that? What is our actual outcome that we’re wanting? What are we wanting the children to learn? And actually, that should be the first thing that we’re thinking about, and so we’re actually choosing our activities to fit that. And again, once you have that, you then need to think about exactly how you’re going to assess it. And there are numerous ways that we could be doing it within our working scientifically. Karen mentioned earlier about EYFS, and actually, they are the perfect people to be taking examples for. They are the perfect practitioners when it comes to absolute observation and assessing through that.
Skip to 14 minutes and 54 seconds And I would certainly, if you’re unsure about how to do that, just take a little bit of time to go and talk to your colleagues in the EYFS. Or actually, just drop in and watch them a little bit because you will learn so much, and it will be so helpful for your assessment in science. But it could be in other ways. You could be asking the children just to note down their ideas and Post-It notes. It could be that you’re actually getting them to do a little bit of writing. It could be that you’re using technology. There are some great apps these days that you can use that allow the children to actually record themselves.
Skip to 15 minutes and 30 seconds And actually, that is stored so the teacher can look back at that and that could be recording through an actual video recording, it could be pictures, it could be them actually writing onto the screens. And these all get saved and then the teacher can look at them later on. You could also ask the children to do some little quick assessment tasks. These working scientifically quick assessment tasks have just simply been written from the working scientifically statements. And it might be a starter at the beginning of the lesson, or even better, if it was at the end of the previous lesson so that you’re actually planning for what you find out from this assessment.
Skip to 16 minutes and 9 seconds There are little focused activities you could do. So if you were wanting to know how well the children ask questions, it could be that you set up one of those raisins in lemonade activities, like again, you saw earlier in this course. You could ask the children than to generate as many questions as they could and then that could be your assessment. There are some great websites that can also help us and materials that are already out there that can really help us with our working scientifically assessment. The plan assessment website has got some fantastic progression grids. It has got planning matrices, which also look at where your assessment could be. They are free and available to download.
Skip to 16 minutes and 56 seconds The TAPS that is available on the PSTT website is fantastic as well for assessing your working scientifically. And on there, there are some focused assessment tasks, which you could be planning straight into your session of lessons on a topic that would help you to assess your working scientifically.
Skip to 17 minutes and 16 seconds KAREN BRUNYEE: So the next question was just a really short one. Some people are worried about the amount of science that they’re expected to do. It is in England, it is a core subject, it’s one that needs to be taught. Its statutory guidance states that you need to get certain things done. How do you work that in your school is completely up to you. Guidance from a report produced by the Wellcome Trust stated that, most schools who are doing well in science, their Key Stage 1 children are in about an hour and a half every week of science. And at Key Stage 2, that goes up to about two or three hours. Now, do you teach that every week?
Skip to 17 minutes and 59 seconds Do you teach as a block? Again, that’s up to your school and your policies. I personally would recommend that science is taught weekly. That it’s done as a progressive subject so that you’re keeping those skills going and that you’re not doing six weeks of it here and then not touching it ‘till the next year. Because then there’s no skill development, the children might have forgotten how to do half the things that they have been practicing. And like anything, if you keep doing it, you’re going to get better and better at it. We wouldn’t just do six week block of English. The other issue that, personally, we have with blocking is, let’s say a child is poorly for two weeks.
Skip to 18 minutes and 40 seconds And they may have missed that entire unit of science. So that is the guidance that comes from the Wellcome Trust. There is no statutory guidance from the amount of hours, but I just leave it out there, it is a core subject within England. So I leave it up to you to decide how much you want to do and what fits into your curriculum. One question that really interested me was, someone asked how you can use the famous scientists. As mentioned in the curriculum, we should be using scientists and studying scientists and how their work reflects on modern science.
Skip to 19 minutes and 21 seconds And it’s really interesting, I love looking at scientists and how what they did in the past reflects on what we do now. I mean, quite often, a lot of the scientists that are mentioned, especially the English national curriculum, are old, dead white men. And always say, mmm, you know, what does that show to our children? That science is something that has been done to us and it’s happened and it’s not going on anymore? But then, the example I’m going to use is actually a guy from that category. So thinking back to Darwin, for example. Say Darwin, very famous for his ideas around evolution. He started, and he used to do every day in his garden, a thinking walk.
Skip to 20 minutes and 5 seconds Well, I started doing that with my early years class. And I’d take them outside and we’d go for a walk and we’d we look at things. It’s brilliant to do all year because you can see the change in your seasons, you can see, oh, look, there’s minibeasts out now, they weren’t there. Look at the tadpoles, and that sort of thing. And that’s exactly what he did. Now do we talk about that with our children? Yes, absolutely. We say, Darwin came up with this amazing theory in evolution that’s proved, and he did it by wandering around and just looking at things. We can all be scientists. Someone like Macintosh, who developed the waterproof.
Skip to 20 minutes and 40 seconds He looked at what his workers were wearing and they were wearing animal skins and getting wet and ill and cold. What could be better? So he started looking at different materials. It didn’t stop. We don’t all keep wearing those bright, yellow sou’westers that he developed, we now wear Gortex. Where did that come in? Who is the scientist that looked at that? Where’s it going to go now? You know, are we going to have better waterproof material? And then trying to think of other people. So there’s a brilliant Scottish lady called Valerie Hunter Gordon who developed the very first disposable nappy.
Skip to 21 minutes and 18 seconds Yes, disposable nappies might not be so great now, but when she developed them, she was a mother of five, needed something to help her out. What can we look at now? I saw an article just the other day about bottles that are made from fungus that say, you drink it, it looks like a glass bottle, you can throw it away, and it just disintegrates. There’s nothing left because it’s a natural material. Google glass– it’s fascinating. You touch it and it can do things. There had to be a scientist that developed that. So just bringing those in, looking at the science behind what the scientists did so it doesn’t just have to be, Darwin was a man.
Skip to 21 minutes and 56 seconds He lived in 18-something, you know. It doesn’t have to be just write a biography of a famous scientist. It can actually be, what’s the science that that scientists developed and how has it got implications for what we do today?
Skip to 22 minutes and 13 seconds SARAH DAGNELL: Now, throughout the course, Explorify has come up. It has been mentioned by us, but more and more we get comments from you guys saying about how you’re using it in the classroom and about how much you are loving it. And for those of you that actually haven’t been on the website yet and had a look around, I’d encourage you to do it as quickly as possible and actually get it embedded in your lessons in school because it is a fantastic resource. Some of you, though, have just come across it and have been asking about, yes, it looks great. But actually what is the best way that we can be using Explorify? Now Explorify is such a versatile resource.
Skip to 22 minutes and 54 seconds It’s fabulous. It’s there to support both the content and our working scientifically. And so can be used in lots of different ways within our lessons. The Explorify website actually says, “it’s there to introduce new science topics, it’s there to provide continuity between lessons, to assess learning and progress, revisit prior learning, develop children’s skills in working scientifically, and to support cross-curricular learning.” I suggest that all of you, actually, have a little look at the Download section, which is one of the tabs that’s across the top on the website. And on there, there’s some fantastic resources including vocabulary lists.
Skip to 23 minutes and 37 seconds They also have an inquiry planning sheet, which highlights all the activities that they have on there and which curriculum area that they fit into. So that would be a perfect start for you actually thinking about getting those into your lesson time. There’s also a great blog section which talks about lots of different ideas of how you can use Explorify in your classroom. In terms of assessment, you could use it in, again, numerous different ways. You could use it as a starting point to actually see what the children’s prior learning is. You could use it as a little assessment tool to see if they have got any misconceptions.
Skip to 24 minutes and 21 seconds As the children are progressing through a sequence lessons on a topic, you could be using it throughout that sequence to actually see what the children know. Have they retained any of that knowledge from before? Are they starting to apply some of the ideas that you’ve been introducing? And then again at the end, you could be using it as a test to see– I said “test.” I’ll try that again. I hate the word “test.” And at the end of your teaching sequence, you could be using it there to see what the children have remembered and whether their discussions are actually reflecting what they have been learning.
Skip to 24 minutes and 57 seconds In terms of the current climate, as well, Explorify open themselves up for home learning and there’s lots of great ideas about how parents can be using them at home with their children as well.
Skip to 25 minutes and 10 seconds KAREN BRUNYEE: So a lot of people asked around, how do we support our SEND children in science?
Skip to 25 minutes and 17 seconds SEND is a huge category. There may be in any one class, every single child in that class may have a different level of SEN. You may have particular children here who are autistic or have sensory impairments or behavioural impairments. The breadth of SEND need within any classroom is too big for me to sort of comment to say, this works really, really well. So I think it’s about knowing your children. And the fact that science is a brilliant subject for any child to take part in.
Skip to 25 minutes and 52 seconds From those children who are working right at the bottom of the P scales where they can just use their eyes or they can just touch things, right up to those who are high-functioning and have really good high cognitive ability and maybe just struggle a little bit with a practical activity or with writing. If you’ve got dyslexic children– the most dyslexic child I’ve ever worked with was my most amazing science person because he thought a lot. He constantly thought. Gave him a piece of paper to provide his thoughts down, it wasn’t going to happen, but that’s why science is so great.
Skip to 26 minutes and 29 seconds Because if you can take the time to listen to that child to come up with a different way of them engaging with the task, then you win them over. Still to say, you need to know your children, you need to know what works for them. Does a visual stimulus work? Can you use visual guides? Can you use different ways of recording for those children? Can you have a different way of approaching a session? And maybe, if a child struggles with their behaviour for a long period of time, give them two-minute little tasks. One resource that I think is a wonderful one comes from Sheffield Hallam University, and they’ve developed a Science For All Programme and it’s called our focus frame.
Skip to 27 minutes and 11 seconds And it’s a piece of paper or a laminated bit, and you put whatever it is the children are working on in the centre. And then just have four, more if the children can cope with it, activities, questions around the outside. And the children are then focusing just on that one thing and they’ve got their four questions, they’re four ideas to work around. They know there’s an end goal. It’s not an open task, because that might challenge some children. And they know that if they just do those four, then they’ve met the task for that session. There are other things on that website, as well, the Science For All website, which got some lovely things.
Skip to 27 minutes and 46 seconds Using photographs, using practical things, a science cupboard that the children can go and explore. So I think with SEND, it is just about knowing your children and what works for them. And then finding a way through. Oh, another thing that worked really well for my children was structuring the questions that I gave them. So it wasn’t one question for the entire class. I might ask some children to answer a very simple question, but then they have succeeded in answering that question. And other children, a more complex question, and they’ve succeeded in answering that question.
Skip to 28 minutes and 21 seconds There’s nothing worse than everyone having the same and you don’t manage to do any of it but you know your friend over the other side of the class has managed great big things. If we’ve all if we’ve all managed to do the bit that you’ve been set, then it’s a win.
Skip to 28 minutes and 38 seconds SARAH DAGNELL: And finally, lots of you again have asked about the different examples of activities for each topic. Because for any of us, those quick wins of being able to look and find some ideas to get us going with our planning, that’s just the most helpful thing when we’ve got a million and one other things that we need to be focusing on as teachers. I would start with just having a little look at the non-statutory guidance, which is actually in the national curriculum. It’s a bit that we don’t often read because we’re finding the statement that we’re working on through lots of different means. And a lot of the time, that’s not actually looking at the national curriculum.
Skip to 29 minutes and 22 seconds But the non-statutory guidance actually does give us some examples of activities that we could be carrying out with the children, and I would certainly start with there. Other things that you could be doing is actually looking at our website, because the STEM Learning website has a whole section dedicated to primary science, it’s our primary science landing page. And on there, you’ll find every topic in national curriculum. Every year group for every topic in the national curriculum is listed there with activities under it. So that is a fantastic resource to share with your staff and for you to use, as well. As mentioned earlier, the plan assessment year group matrices also have some really good ideas on them.
Skip to 30 minutes and 9 seconds I think that’s a really great resource that has come around in the last couple of years, and it is one that I would definitely take advantage of. Another great resource is a book that’s written by a colleague of ours, Nicky Waller, it’s called A Creative Approach to Teaching Science. That book has loads of ideas for how you can get your practical into your lesson. It takes each curriculum statement and gives a practical activity that you could be doing for that and explains what the working scientifically is that the children would be looking at. And finally, there’s another two websites that I would suggest having a look at.
Skip to 30 minutes and 45 seconds There’s the Inquiring Science For All website, which does look at each inquiry type and gives you questions that you could be asking the children for each the year group. And also, The Ogden Trust. The Ogden Trust has some lovely sheets on there that you can download, which talk about each inquiry type. They give you more information about each of them, and again, gives you some questions that you could use for investigations for each of your year groups. Thank you so much for joining us in teaching Primary Science– Getting Started. That’s the end of our question and answer session. I’m sorry that we really couldn’t get to all of your questions, but you really have had so many.
Skip to 31 minutes and 28 seconds It’s been so lovely to see so many of you joining us on this course. These are challenging times at the minute, and we do appreciate everything that you are doing. Good luck with it. And I do hope you join us on our courses again soon.
Q&A with Karen and Sarah
The Q&A sessions on courses from the National STEM Learning Centre provide you with the opportunity to ask more about the course content and issues from your own classroom practice.
- 0:40 Concept cartoons
- 2:24 Enquiry types
- 4:31 Science in the Early Years Foundation Stage
- 7:07 Teaching whole investigations
- 10:11 Students going off on a tangent
- 13:11 Assessing working scientifically
- 17:14 How much science should be taught
- 19:06 Famous scientists
- 22:13 Best ways of using Explorify
- 25:08 Supporting SEND children in science
- 28:38 Examples of activities for each topic
Here are some useful resources for teaching science.
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