Skip to 0 minutes and 0 seconds Previously, we said that the enthalpy of an ideal gas is independent of pressure at constant temperature. And the internal energy of an ideal gas is independent of volume at constant temperature. The enthalpy and internal energy of an ideal gas were asserted to be functions of temperature only. Here, we can prove it using the property relations. Let’s begin with enthalpy. dH is TdS + VdP. Divide both side by dP at constant temperature. Then (dH over dP) is T times (dS over dP) + V. So, to get the pressure dependence of enthalpy at constant temperature, we need (dS over dP) at constant temperature. Among the property relations, it can be obtained from dG, since G has variables of P and T.
Skip to 1 minute and 3 seconds (dS over dP) at constant T is - (dV over dT) at constant P. So, (dH over dP) is now - T (dV over dT) + V. For ideal gas, V equals to RT over P from the equation of state. Then, (dH over dP) at constant T becomes zero. Thus, enthalpy does not depend on pressure at constant T and it is a function of temperature only. Similarly, let’s prove that the internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of temperature only and independent of volume. dU is TdS - PdV. Divide both sides with dV at constant T. Then the volume dependence of the internal energy can be calculated from (dS over dV) at constant T.
Skip to 2 minutes and 11 seconds This can be obtained from dF since F has T, V as variables. dF is - SdT - PdV. The property relation from here is (dS over dV) at constant T equals (dP over dT) at constant V. So, (dU over dV) is T times (dP over dV) - P. Again P is RT over V for the ideal gas. Thus (dU over dV) at constant T is zero. So the internal energy is a function of temperature only.
Internal energy and enthalpy of ideal gases depend only on temperature
The internal energy and enthalpy of ideal gases depends only on temperature, not on volume or pressure.
We can prove these property of ideal gases using property relations. From the fundamental equations for internal energy and enthalpy, the volume dependence of internal energy and the pressure dependence of enthalpy for ideal gases are derived. By applying property relations, it is proved that the internal energy and enthalpy of ideal gases do not depend on volume and pressure, repectively.