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Skip to 0 minutes and 24 seconds Hello, everyone. Welcome to this new chapter. In this chapter, we will learn the topic of tourism impacts which is an essential issue in tourism planning and development. I think only with the knowledge of tourism impacts we could find a way to access a tourism planning and make sure a tourism implementation could be a sustainable one in the long term. And the whole contents in this chapter has been divided into four sections. Like this. Firstly, I will give a short introduction to tourism impacts which will provide you a perspective how should we understand tourism impacts. Then three sub issues will be elaborated . They are economic impacts of tourism the socio-cultural impacts of tourism,and the last environmental impacts of tourism.

Skip to 1 minute and 31 seconds Ok. Let’s start. Now we come to the introduction . Before we start, it is my turn to bring out the learning objectives. They will help you effectively grasp the key knowledge about tourism impacts in general. There are three objectives here. Firstly, after you have learned the introduction. I hope you could have a basic understanding of the various impacts of tourism. The second, I hope you could be aware of a number of influences on tourism impacts. And the last, I hope you could be aware that tourism impacts can be considered as positive or negative.

Skip to 2 minutes and 23 seconds Response to these objectives, there are five contents included in this part of introduction. They are, two perspectives, then positive benefits and negative effects are listed. Except the positive and negative points, major influences on tourism impacts will be elaborated And followed some fundamental truths about tourism. In the end, there will be a summary. This is all the five contents in the part of introduction.

Skip to 3 minutes and 7 seconds The first perspective is three dimensions. I think I need to clarify the contents of environment Because when we talk about tourism impacts. Actually we are talking about tourism impacts to environment which tourism makes place in. As showed in this slide, environment is made up both human and natural features . The human environment comprises economic, cultural, and social factors and processes. The natural environment is made of plants and animals in their habits. . 43 00:03:49.428 –> 00:03:53.908 The human environment and the natural environment are interwoven

Skip to 3 minutes and 54 seconds and human activity is both affected by and has effects on the natural environment. As showed in this slide, tourism, as a significant form of human activity can have major impacts. These impacts are very visible in the destination region where tourists interact with the local environment, economy, culture and society. Extract from this statement, economy socio-culture and evironment are three dimensions in tourism impacts. Hence, it’s the conventional to consider tourism under the headings of socio-cultural economic, and environmental impacts. This convention is followed in the three sub-chapter, that follow this introduction to tourism impacts. Actually, in the real world, tourism issues are generally multi-faceted often having a combination of economic, social, and environmental dimensions. This point we should know.

Skip to 5 minutes and 12 seconds Yes, from another perspective, the impacts of tourism can be positive or beneficial, but also negative or detrimental. There are the common ways we make evaluation or judgment Whether impacts are perceived as positive or negative depends on the value position and the judgement of the observer of the impacts. Like this, one smile, one cry.

Skip to 5 minutes and 46 seconds In this slide, I show example The case is about the footpath in national park. By discuss the tourism impacts, it may help with an understanding of the importance of attitudes and value positions in relating to tourism impacts.

Skip to 6 minutes and 9 seconds You can think by yourself Firstly, one observer may suggest that the creation of a footpath through the national park to cater for tourists can be viewed as a way of routing tourists and therefore limiting damage which means a positive impact. Another observer may claim that this footpath routing will promote an increase in tourism numbers and hence the likelihood of more damage to the environment this means a negative impact. Therefore I need discussion of tourism impacts needs to consider the value position of the observer and the commentators and should be set within considerations of the wider contexts of tourism.

Skip to 7 minutes and 8 seconds Ok. It is conventional for researchers and policy makers to note a number of both positive and negative effects of tourism Here, I will give some basic points about the positive and negative tourism impact. Like showed in this slide, positive economic benefits usually include contribution to a local economy increase in tax revenue and job creation. And in the aspect of social the positive impacts of tourism can include the revival of traditional art or handicraft activity as a result of tourist demand . And in environmental aspect the positive effects of tourism may include revenue generated from visits to sites of natural attraction being used to restore and maintain the attraction.

Skip to 8 minutes and 12 seconds As well as enhanced interests from visitors in the importance of the nature of environment and therefore a great willingness to support measures to protect the environment.

Skip to 8 minutes and 30 seconds Okay, to the negative side, is negative side in economy. Effects of tourism may include increase in the price of land houses and even food prices in tourist destination. You can think about by yourself whether your hometown exists such phenomenon. In such negative effects, it will become very evident during the tourism season. Negative socio-cultural impacts may include the loss of cultural identity particularly when tourists are from the developed world and the hosts are located in a developing country This may be part of what is usually referred to as demonstration effects. And this big word, demonstration effects, I will elaborate later.

Skip to 9 minutes and 33 seconds And this phenomenon occurs when inhabitants of a developing country imitate the activities of the visitors who are from developed countries. This may start off as what may be considered relatively innocuous behaviors, such as the desire to wear brand named- jeans and consume branded fast food and drink. But can take the form of far more undesirable activities, such as drug taking. Negative environmental consequences include pollution from vehicle litter dropped by visitors. This disturbance to habitats and damage to landscape features. As has been stated above, it is often easier to see impacts in a unidimensional manner. When in reality they should be viewed within a wider context of not just tourism factors. But also wider societal considerations

Skip to 10 minutes and 44 seconds In such wider societal consideration, many factors will influence the tourism impacts. All these factors need to be taken into consideration. Major factors influencing tourism impacts have been synthesized and summarized below and are set out in the form of questions. With some comments following the questions as example or to provide explanation. The first, where is tourism taking place? For example, is it in a rural place Or in an urban location? A coastal or inland? A developing or developed country? The second question, what is the scale of tourism? For example, how many tourists are involved? Okay, the next question, who are the tourists? For example, what is their origin? Are they domestic or international visitors? Are they from developed or developing country?

Skip to 11 minutes and 54 seconds Another question, in what type of activity do tourists engaged? For example, are these passive active? are these consumptive or resourced? Is there a high or low level of interaction with a host of population? And what infrastructure exists for tourism? For example, roads, sewage system, electricity supply And there are two more questions for how long has tourism been established and when is the tourist season? What is the time of year? And the importance of dry season Okay, now we finish this part of major influence on tourism impacts

An Introduction to Tourism Impacts(1)

By the end of this video, you will have a general understanding about the tourism impact.

Aim to understand the tourism impact, how are the perspectives? While watching, you may take some notes about something you find interesting about what Dr. Kun Zhang has to say.

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Tourism Policy and Planning

Nankai University