Skip to 0 minutes and 24 seconds Hi, welcome back. In last class, we talk something about destination planning, both for new development and management and marketing. This class, we turn to something about the history of tourism planning in China and beyond China.
Skip to 0 minutes and 47 seconds After World War Ⅱ, tourism has witnessed very fast growth in many countries, including China, countries in Europe and North America and other parts of the world. But why was tourism growth very fast after World War Ⅱ? Because we have many things that from both demand and supply side. We have new things changed, for example, we have very good economic and family income growth in many accounts and the improvement of productivity also has been improved. And then, we have more new kids born in many countries. And also we have the transportation from continent to continent. And also we have the high transport system in many countries built.
Skip to 1 minute and 44 seconds And also from the supply side, the governments encourage tourism development and the scenic spots have been invested much money to have more attraction spots to the world. And also we have a new recognition of the relationship between people and nature and more people like to have a backpack tourism not only in the packaged. And also we have more tourism organized by the tour operator. So, all these things that make the possibility that tourism could be fast developed. From the aspect of global history of tourism planning we have several different phases, from the initial stage, to the stage before the World War ¢ò, but majorly tourism planning happened after the World War Ⅱ.
Skip to 2 minutes and 46 seconds In the 1930s, before the World War Ⅱ, tourism planning emerged as a new thing in England, just like the industry evolution happened there. But after the World War Ⅱ, when we had some plannings like the state plan of Hawaii tourism development in 1959, it is regarded as the first or the pioneer of modern tourism planning after World War Ⅱ. So this is the initial stage of tourism planning. In the 1960s, when I was born. I was born in 1962. It’s a secret. Don’t tell others about it, okey?
Skip to 3 minutes and 30 seconds It is an expansion stage for tourism planning because at the United Nation General Assembly, the general meeting, all the country together stressed the importance of tourism and tourism planning in 1963 when I was about 2 years old.
Skip to 3 minutes and 50 seconds Researches at that time focused on the development and utilization of tourism resource, exploitation of new tourism area and reform of the old tourism area based on economic perspective mostly. Because in many countries why people made a tourism planning was, not for the public benefit, but to earn more money for the government, more tax for the local development. The third stage is the transition, something changed in the 1970s to the 1980s. The World Tourism Organization issued Integrated Planning and Inventory of Tourism Development Plans. In that inventory… The UNWTO at that time it’s not attached to UN, but it’s an independent organization seated in Spain Madrid that the organization completed a survey that how many countries made the tourism planning?
Skip to 4 minutes and 55 seconds What was the situation of the implementation of those planning? So it is sure that the government role had been quite different from country to country. Some countries are just coordinator for the tourism planning, but some governments act as regulator. But mostly more countries played the role as the developer and regulator. Only in a few very developed countries, government play a less important role to make tourism planning and to implement the planning. So in 1979, Clare Gunn, a professor from Texas A&M, he was the first Doctor degree holder that graduated from Harvard University of School of Design. So, he wrote a book called Tourism Planning. It is very very famous.
Skip to 5 minutes and 51 seconds So if you are pursue that you have been taking the lesson of tourism planning, you should know him, Professor Clare Gunn. Gunn wrote this book and helped many people to learn how to make a tourism planning. The forth stage of the planning is the rapid development which means it grew very fast in 1980s and 1990s. Researchers focused on being holistic or comprehensive or integrated which means putting everything together to make a tourism destination successful. So, in this stage, people got the main point of how to make a tourism planning and how to make the planning by listening to different stakeholders, like the government, the local people, the investor or the professional NGOs or the tourist themselves.
Skip to 6 minutes and 51 seconds So research begun to concern with problems of environmental, cultural and social impact. So impact research has become very popular not only in tourism planning area, but also to the whole tourism research area. The fifth one is deep development which means very complicated or more people involved, and more series have come out since 1990s up to now. So, sustainable development concerns more about the green development philosophy and also sharing more benefit to the local community is put into the eyes of policy maker. In the early stage of the tourism planning that people from the up or the center government level made it, but today we make tourism planning more from bottom, from the local, from the community aspect.
Skip to 7 minutes and 54 seconds So tourism development planning or tourism management planning in the world has experienced five stages. When we turn back to China, the development history is quite different or some different. Because before 1978, China experienced the close door policy for quite a long time, but after 1978 when Deng Xiaoping came to his office and to take the power, China opened the door. So at that point China had a modern tourism again, because we had international travel operators or many travel services before 1978. So when we had a tourism again in 1978, we had the second time.
Skip to 8 minutes and 49 seconds So from that point we had experienced a four-stage of tourism planning and tourism development It means that at the first stage we depended on the resources, the Great Wall, the Huangshan mountain all the world heritage today was the first attraction for international visitors and the major purpose was for foreign currency. So the first stage is from 1978 to 1989, we had some political event in China that year. So It’s a time to shade tourism development. In the first stage, based on resource oriented, China tourism is slowly development And we make some research preparation for the inventory category standard.
Skip to 9 minutes and 49 seconds The second phase is from 1990 to 2000, the new century in which academic dominated means that tourism planners came from the university, from some natural science or social science, institutes of different levels, from central level, from the provincial level. so do the papers, the researches. Planning got support from the academic area. But in the third one we had a real consulting company. They registered in the government and also they made the planning for the government, for the private company to do quite professional services. The forth phase of development we called it tourism plus or Quanyu tourism. We will talk more about Quanyu tourism later.
Skip to 10 minutes and 50 seconds In this phase people put many things except tourism, we put agriculture, we put transportation, we put investment all those things together. We called tourism plus just like some internet plus. So, after that time the new leader of Tourism Administration China, Dr. Li Jinzao, has a new idea of tourism plus. So tourism plus have pushed China very quickly for tourism development, but also for tourism planning.
Skip to 11 minutes and 33 seconds If we have an overall review of tourism planning history of China, we will find from this diagram that from the very beginning in the opening policy time that is 1978, we had only such things, and then gradually we had new idea, new product like the near distance leisure or resorts and also we had some suburban area development for entertainment and then we come to real long distance resorts or holiday making product for people. This is a major development history of tourism planning globally and domestically in China Thank you very much.
Global and Domestic History of Tourism Planning
In this Video, Professor Wu Bihu classifies different stages of tourism planning globally and domestically.
Do you know the history of tourism planning in your counties?
We would like to invite you to share some thoughts in the comments section below.
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