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Used of Antibiotics Against Gastric Microflora

So let me summarize, during lactations, mammary glands produce CCL28 and the Peyer’s patches is a key process where B cells produce CCR10 that is a receptor for the CCL28. And then activated B cells, which expresses CCR10 start to migrate into the mammary glands, then they produce maternal IgA antibodies. So the next question is why the mammary glands need the intestinal tracts or gut immune system. Why they need to recruit B cells, plasma cells from the intestine? That is our next question. So as I told you, the gut immune system is very important to establish a symbiotic relationship between the host and microbiome. In particular, IgA antibodies in the gastrointestinal tracts has very important functions to establish a good relationship.
So if you disturb the microbial environment by using antibiotics such as ampicillin, neomycin, vancomycin the gut microbial environment is disturbed. And then simultaneously gut immune system is affected, maybe the reduction of IgA antibodies. So we prepared the experimental models. One group was treated with ampicillin, which is one of the antibiotics, before pregnancy during lactations. Then analyze the mammary glands, maternal IgA antibody production. The second group is the neomycin treatment. The third group was the mice treated with vancomycin and the other final group was treated with three antibodies all together. Then we compared the mammary gland IgA productions. This is the change of the intestinal microflora after antibody treatment. The left one is just distilled water treated mice.
And the second one is ampicillin treated, the third one is neomycin treated, and the fourth one is vancomycin treated, and the final one is altogether. One bar means individual mice, and each color means individual bacterial species In usual, in the distilled water treated mice, there are multiple bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tracts. And if you treat the mice with antibiotics, the intestinal microflora is changed. Especially vancomycin or mix treated models. The microflora pattern is dramatically changed. And if you do the component analysis, you can see how much changes among the treatment. So one dot means an individual mouse. The distilled water treated, ampicillin treated, or neomycin treated mice, they are a little bit similar.
However, vancomycin treated mice were mixed altogether treated mice. The intestinal microflora is very different from the distilled water treated mice. Then in this condition, we analyze the maternal IgA antibodies. The reason why… Because we wanted to demonstrate the importance of the gut microbial environment in inducing the maternal IgA antibodies in the mammary gland. If there is some kind of relationship between the gut and the mammary gland, you will see something different, especially in the vancomycin or with all together treated mice.

The intestinal colon consists of a variety of bacteria, some may beneficial/pathogenic to human health, and does the disturbance of gastric microflora, especially the use of antibiotics, will have any impact on maternal IgA production? Here Professor Nochi demonstrated that providing mice with antibiotics, especially vancomycin or mix treated mice, will dramatically change the microflora pattern of mice.

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Agriculture and Nutrition

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