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Policy and regulatory initiatives

The regulatory initiatives are coming up in different countries and areas. Prof. Ching-Fu Lin summarizes them in this article.
The regulatory initiatives are coming up in different countries and areas. This article helps you to have an clear overview on them.


Autonomous Driving Act 2021

Legal framework for Level 4 autonomous vehicles on public roads. Main features: Shuttle services between two points. People movers on fixed routes. Hub2hub services for logistics. Services during off-peak hours. Dual-mode vehicles, e.g., automated valet parking.

European Union

Focuses on safety features for traditional vehicles. Defines Automated Vehicle and Fully Automated Vehicle. Sets guidelines for real-time information processing, driver attention monitoring, and harmonized data exchange for vehicles.

United Kingdom

Addresses the legal framework for autonomous vehicles. Discusses challenges of determining the responsible party. Shifts legal accountability from “driver” to “user-in-charge” for vehicles with “self-driving” ADS features.

United States

Florida’s Legislation: 2012: Established foundational terms for autonomous vehicles. 2016: Allowed autonomous vehicles on public roads without physical drivers. 2019: Introduced standardized terminology and shifted responsibility to automated systems.
Nevada’s Legislation: 2011: First state to address autonomous vehicles. 2017: Refinements including terms, commercial deployment, platooning, and vehicle communication.


2019: Allowed Level 3 autonomous vehicles on public roads. 2022: Allowed Level 4 automated vehicles for specific use cases like unmanned buses and delivery robots.


Stipulates trials or deployments must be authorized by the Land Transport Authority and limits operations to specific areas.


First targeted regulations for autonomous vehicles in the region, promoting progress and safety.

© Ching-Fu Lin and NTHU, proofread by ChatGPT
This article is from the free online

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