Hofstede’s national culture dimension
The business of international business is culture.(Hofstede, 1994)
- Power distance (large versus small): the extent to which the less powerful members in organisations accept and expect that power can be distributed equally.
- Uncertainty avoidance (strong versus weak): the extent to which members in organisations feel stressed when facing uncertainty in the future.
- Individualism versus collectivism: the degree of integration of individuals into groups.
- Masculinity versus femininity: the distributions of emotional roles between women and men.
- Long-term versus short-term orientation: the choice of current focuses; the future or the present and past.
- Indulgence versus restraint: the extent of gratification of human desire for enjoying life.
Your taskConsider these six dimensions. Are there any that you think are missing and could be added to the list?Share your ideas with your fellow learners.
Further informationIn 2015, Hofstede recorded a series of 10-minute videos with accompanying PowerPoint slides that you may find interesting:Hofstede, G. (2015). 10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede. https://geerthofstede.com/training-consulting/online-lectures/.
ReferencesHofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values (vol. 5). Sage.Hofstede, G. (1994). The business of international business is culture. International Business Review, 3(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0969-5931(94)90011-6Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage.Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind: Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Business Management: National and Organisational Cultures
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