In this section, I’m going to talk about the criterion one. And I will give several examples to illustrate what site can be list as this criterion. So the criterion one is to represent a masterpiece of the human creative genius. So what does this mean? is this means? The criterion ones, in other words, this criterion relates to an outstanding example, perhaps the peak or a landmark example of a style evolved within a culture, having a high intellectual or symbolic endowment; and a high level of artistic, technical or technological skills. And uniqueness is not, on its own, sufficient to justify inscription. The property must be considered in a broader cultural-historical context, and its value assessed in criterion to the context.
The World Heritage List is a list of properties, not a list of people. So, for example, under criterion (i) what is required is a masterpiece of human creative genius. The World Heritage List does not list geniuses but it can list their masterpieces. Similarly, it does not list the body of work of a genius, but it may list the masterpiece that has outstanding Universal Value or a series of masterpieces that has Outstanding Universal Value as a whole. I will give you several examples of that. The first one is the Sydney Opera House. Everyone must know that. I still remember, you know in 2000, as Sydney Olympic Games. It’s very beautiful, right?
The Sydney Opera House inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2017, represent a great architectural work of the 20th century that brings together multiple strands of creativity and innovation in both architectural form and structural design. A great urban sculpture set in a remarkable waterscape, at the tip of a peninsula projecting into Sydney Harbour, the building has had an enduring influence on architecture still now. In all the Sydney Opera House compromise three groups of the interlocking vaulted ‘shells’ which roof two main performance halls and a restaurant. These shell-structures are set upon a vast platform and are surrounded by terrace areas that function as pedestrian concourses.
In 1957, when the project of the Sydney Opera House was awarded by an international jury to Danish architect Jørn Utzon, it marked a radically new approach to construction.
So well, the criterion to inscribe these things? The Sydney Opera House is a great architectural work of the 20th century. It represents multiple strands of creativity, both in architectural form and structural design, a great urban sculpture carefully set in a remarkable waterscape and a world famous iconic building.
And you know, an international design competition was launched by Cahill on 13 September 1955,you know, received from more than 233 entries, from 32 countries to participate. So the winner is the Danish architect, Jørn Utzon. And the design process is, you know, very interesting. Jørn Utzon based on the Sydney Opera House won the Pritzker Architecture Prize,
which is architecture’s highest honour, in 2003, the Pritzker Prize citation read: There is no doubt that the Sydney Opera House is his masterpiece. It is one of the great iconic buildings of the 20th century, an image of great beauty that has become known throughout the world a symbol for not only a city, but a whole country and continent.
And you know, there are several stages to build the Sydney Opera House and it is very complicate. The first stage is from the1959 to 1963, consists of the building the upper podium, and stage two the construction of the outer shells; The stage three interior design and construction. Well, the original cost and scheduling estimates in 1957 projected a cost of £3,500,000 ($7 million) and completion date of 26 January 1963 (Australia Day). In reality, the project was completed ten years late and more than ten times over budget in real terms which is $102 million.
Well, another example I will talk about, it is also a masterpiece about the Works of Antoni Gaudi. And you can remember that and not least all the architecture designed by Antoni Gaudi, but the representative buildings such as this church, which is La Sagrada Familia, it is very massive in Barcelona, Seven properties built by the architect Antoni Gaudi in or near Barcelona testify to Gaudi’s exceptional creative contribution to the development of architecture and building technology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These monuments represent an eclectic, as well as a very personal style which was given free reign in the design of gardens, sculpture and all decorative arts, as well as architecture.
The seven buildings are: Parque Güell; Casa Mila; La Sagrada Familia; Casa Batlló; All these four things listed in Barcelona.
There are some details of the thing like La Sagrada, and La Sagrada Familia testifying “to Gaudí’s exceptional creative contribution to the development of architecture and building technology”, “having represented Catalonia” and “anticipated and influenced many of the forms and techniques that were relevant to the development of modern construction in the 20th century”. The building’s design itself has been polarizing. Assessments by Gaudí’s fellow architects were generally positive; Such as Louis Sullivan who is also greatly architector admired it, describing Sagrada Família as the “greatest piece of creative architecture in the last twenty-five years. It is spirit symbolised in stone! Walter Gropius also praised the Sagrada Família, describing the building’s walls as “a marvel of technical perfection”.
Time Magazine also called it “sensual, spiritual, whimsical, excellent”, So you can see from these images, it’s about the model built by the Gaudi, not like other architectures built form, you know, from the ups to down. Sorry, from the down to up. But the build from the up down, it is very special. Well, these two is Parque Güell; Casa Mila It also represents the great designed by the Gaudi. And it is a series of the nomination under the criterion one. And I also will talk about a series of the criterion, in the following courses. And these two images shows another example of the Casa Batlló, which also are one of the representative the Gaudi’s work.
And you know, the one of the great painter Dali called that Gaudi’s work just like the god. They can use the curve very beautifully. And Dali believed that, several studies believe that the straight line belongs to the human and the curve belongs to the god. But you know, Gaudi can use the god language to build the fantastic buildings. So what a genius. So the third example I would like to talk is Taj Mahal, which is well known.
Taj Mahal is immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife, the Taj Mahal is the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage. You know the criterion one to inscribe the Taj Mahal represents the finest architectural and artistic achievement through perfect harmony and excellent craftsmanship in a whole range of Indo-Islamic sculpture architecture. It is a masterpiece of architectural style in conception, treatment and execution and has unique aesthetic qualities in balance, symmetry and harmonious blending of various elements.
You cannot imagine how delicate of the Taj Mahal and the visual direction is 45 degree and is so well the fine the design. And so what is the masterpiece of the Taj Mahal. So in this section, I talk about criterion one and give you three examples, the Taj Mahal, the Gaudi’s work and Sydney Opera House. The next section, I’m going to talk about the criterion two. Thank you.