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General to Specific

A brief lecture introduces general-to-specific (G-S) patterns in research writing

General to Specific

# Intro Section
– Background – Motivation – Objective

paragraph samples

Writing is a complex socio-cognitive process involving the construction of recorded messages on paper….. The skills needed to write range from making the appropriate graphic marks, …., to anticipating the reactions of the intended readers. The first skill involves acquiring a writing system, ….. The second skill requires selecting the appropriate grammar and vocabulary to form acceptable sentences and then arranging them in paragraphs. Third, writing involves thinking about the purpose of the text to be composed and about its possible effects on the intended readership. One important aspect of this last feature is the choice of a suitable style. Because of these characteristics, writing is not an innate natural ability like speaking but has to be acquired through years of training or schooling.

  • Writing
  • Writing skills
  • One aspect of the last skills


[Reflection] General or specific?

  • Storytelling is an effective teaching strategy for young learners.
  • Participating students finally completed a total of 30 sessions in 30 weeks.
  • The participating students of this study were 42 third graders from two classes in an urban elementary school in northern Taiwan.
  • Engagement, as a multi-dimensional factor, has been reported to be associated with students’ motivation, confidence and performance.
  • Digital storytelling has been reported to effectively foster young learners’ interest in learning.
  • The implementation of the collaborative digital storytelling activity was 17 months (1.5 hours a week).

Tips on choosing effective class words

  • Do not repeat the term.
    • The X method is a method that .…. approach, technique
    • Lithium battery is a battery that ….. energy storage system
  • Avoid generic class word.
    • A virus is a genetic material that ….. infectious agent
    • A computer virus is a program that ….. malware, malicious software
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Deconstructing Research Articles: How to Read and Write a Research Paper

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FutureLearn - Learning For Life

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