Skip main navigation

Hurry, only 9 days left to get one year of Unlimited learning for £249.99 £174.99. New subscribers only. T&Cs apply

Find out more

IMRD and its variations

A brief lecture recaps IMRD structure and introduces its variations.

I.M.R&D + conclusion

  • R1, D1 –> R2, D2 –> R3, D3
  • R1, R2, R3 –> D1, D2, D3
  • R1, R2, R3 –> D (1,2,3)
  • What’s in conclusion?
    • Summary of findings
    • Applications
    • Implications
    • Limitations
    • Suggestions for future works

Methodology no more?

  • Chemistry, material science.
  • No methodology?
    • How the data were collected?
  • Appendix
    • Experimental procedures
    • Experimental set-ups


  • Why are the contents of RAs arranged differently?
  • What’s the purpose?
  • Who’s reading it?
  • The structure and organization of RA differ across disciplines.
  • How do the RAs in your field look like? Do you know why?
This article is from the free online

Deconstructing Research Articles: How to Read and Write a Research Paper

Created by
FutureLearn - Learning For Life

Reach your personal and professional goals

Unlock access to hundreds of expert online courses and degrees from top universities and educators to gain accredited qualifications and professional CV-building certificates.

Join over 18 million learners to launch, switch or build upon your career, all at your own pace, across a wide range of topic areas.

Start Learning now