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A brief lecture on strategies of maintaing flow: connectors and exmaples.

Objective of connectors

  • Linking words/phrases that connects ideas in consecutive sentences.
  • Connectors are used to
    • (1) maintain flow, and
    • (2) establish clear relationships.
  • Function/relationship-based :
    • addition, adversativity, cause & effect, clarification, contrast, illustration, intensification.


  • Addition: furthermore, in addition, moreover, in addition to.
  • Adversativity: although, even though, despite of the fact, however, nevertheless, despite, in spite of.
  • Cause & effect: because, since, therefore, as a result, consequently, hence, thus, because of, due to, as a result of.
  • Clarification: in other words, that is.
  • Contrast: while, whereas, in contrast, however, on the other hand, conversely, unlike.
  • Illustration: for example, for instance
  • Intensification: on the contrary, as a matter of fact, in fact.

[Reflection] Practice

  • LIBs are effective energy storage systems. _____ , the manufacture of LIBs is unstable and time-consuming.
  • Fossil fuel is running out. ____ , we need alternative energy sources.
  • Time is money and we should use our time well. ____ , it is easier said than done.

[Reflection] Read for writing

  • Can you easily follow and understand research article in your field?
  • Can you identify any old-to-new information flow in article in your field?
  • How is the flow maintained? By any of the three strategies?
    • Direct repetition
    • This + summary
    • Connectors
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Deconstructing Research Articles: How to Read and Write a Research Paper

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