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Summary words

A brief lecture on strategies of maintaing flow: this + summary word and exmaples.

This/these + [summary word]

  • Summary words are nouns, referring to the subject mentioned earlier in the text.
  • Lithium-ion batteries are electrochemical systems for energy storage. LIBS/These system are popular energy providers in various hand-hold devices, such as smartphones, laptops, and tablets.


  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, only 20% of all households have access to financial services. In 2010, nearly 70% of Kenyan households either had no bank accounts or relied on informal sources of finance. In 2011, 13 commercial banks were operating in Benin, a country with a population of 10 million. ____ limits market exchanges, increases risk, and limits opportunities to save.
  1. This
  2. This lack
  3. This lack of formal financial services
  4. This lack of formal financial service in part of Africa
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Deconstructing Research Articles: How to Read and Write a Research Paper

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