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Further reading on research writing

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A Guide to Understanding CARS Model and I.M.R.D. Structure


As a researcher, it is essential to produce effective research writing that reports findings and convinces readers of the significance and importance of the research. In this article, we will discuss two major considerations in research writing, the audience and the purpose, and how to effectively use the CARS model and I.M.R.D. structure to organize content in a logical manner. The three purposes of research writing will be reviewed, and the importance of considering the readers throughout the writing process will be emphasized.

Considerations in Research Writing

Research writing is primarily intended for experts in the field, and its purpose is to report findings and convince readers of the research’s significance and importance. Therefore, the language used in research writing is usually specific to the field, and the terminology can only be understood by experts. When producing effective research writing, it is essential to keep the audience in mind, as well as the purpose of the writing. By reporting research findings with concise and specific language, the research can be shared with other researchers in the field, and the research can be more effective. It is also important to convince readers of the research’s importance, as this will make the writing more effective. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the three major purposes of research writing in mind while producing your own piece of writing.

I.M.R.D. Structure

The I.M.R.D. structure is a common organization used in research articles that accommodates and includes the necessary information a reader wants to know in a logical manner. The structure consists of four parts: Introduction, Methodology, Results, and Discussion or Conclusion. The introduction tells the readers why the research is being conducted and its importance. The methodology section describes how data was collected and how the research questions were answered. The results section reports the research findings, and the discussion or conclusion section talks about the meaning, application, interpretation, or implication of the findings. By considering the purpose and audience of writing, the information about the research can be organized in a more logical way.

CARS Model

The CARS model, which stands for Create a Research Space, is a universal pattern observed in most research articles. It provides the three logical moves to provide a convincing rationale for the research. The three moves are: establishing a research territory, establishing a niche, and occupying the niche. In move 1, the background and literature of the topic are discussed. In move 2, a missing piece or gap in the literature is identified. In move 3, the research aims to fill the identified gap or missing piece. By following the CARS model, the research can provide a convincing rationale for the research, and it can be easier for readers to understand the significance of the research.

Variations Across Disciplines

Although there may be disciplinary differences in research articles, such as in articles in education and articles in computer science, most articles still follow the I.M.R.D. structure and use the CARS model. The I.M.R.D. structure and CARS model provide a logical and effective way to organize research writing and convince readers of the research’s significance and importance.


Effective research writing requires consideration of the audience and purpose of the writing. By following the I.M.R.D. structure and using the CARS model, research writing can be organized in a logical and convincing manner. The I.M.R.D. structure and CARS model are useful tools that can be applied to most research articles across various disciplines.

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