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Using the CARS Model to Construct Effective Introductions for Research Papers

Introduction:

In academic writing, a well-constructed introduction plays a crucial role in engaging the readers and setting the stage for the study. The CARS model provides a useful framework for organizing the introduction of a research paper. In this article, we will examine the CARS model through three examples: a study on solar cells, a research on drug delivery, and a study on nano-material. By analyzing these examples, we can gain a better understanding of the structure, language, and purpose of each move in the CARS model, and apply them to our own writing.

Example 1: Solar Cells

The first example is a study on solar cells. The introduction starts with a general statement that solar energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuels. This is followed by a brief background on the current state of solar energy research, including the limitations of current technologies. This is move 1a and move 2, respectively. The authors then transition to move 3, stating the purpose of their study and its significance in advancing the field. Throughout the introduction, the authors use the general-to-specific information flow, gradually narrowing down to their specific research question. The language used in this example is mostly in the passive voice and present tense, and the authors use specific verbs to describe the research context and previous findings.

Example 2: Drug Delivery

The second example is a research article on drug delivery. The introduction starts with move 1a, a general statement about the importance of oral delivery in drug administration. The authors then move to move 1b, the literature review, where they highlight the limitations of oral delivery and the challenges in finding suitable carriers for hydrophilic drugs. In move 3, the authors propose a new method to address these challenges. The language used in this example is mostly in the passive voice, and the authors switch between present and past tense to describe current understanding and specific findings.

Example 3: Nano-material

The third example is a study on highly acid-durable carbon coated CO₃O₄ nanoarrays as efficient oxygen evolution electrocatalysts. The introduction starts with move 1a, a general statement about the current state of the field. The authors then transition to move 2, describing the limitations and insufficiency of the current technology and understanding. They use move 2 to narrow down to a specific research question, which is addressed in move 3. The authors also announce their principal findings in the introduction. The language used in this example is mostly in the passive voice, and the authors use specific verbs to describe the insufficiency of the current technology.

Conclusion:

The CARS model provides a clear and effective structure for organizing the introduction of a research paper. By following the general-to-specific information flow and using appropriate language and verbs, writers can effectively communicate the purpose and significance of their study. Critical readers of research articles should be able to identify the moves in the CARS model and analyze the language used in each move. By doing so, they can better understand the purpose and contribution of the study, and apply these strategies to their own writing.

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Deconstructing Research Articles: How to Read and Write a Research Paper

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