Timeline of European integration
1952 – European Coal and Steel CommunityTreaty of Paris establishes the European Coal and Steel Community between France, (West) Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
1958 – European Economic CommunityTreaty of Rome establishes the European Economic Community (EEC)
1973 – First EnlargementUK, Ireland and Denmark join the EEC
1981 – Mediterranean Enlargement 1Greece joins the EEC
1985 – Schengen AreaSchengen Agreement establishes borderless travel area by 1995
1986 – Mediterranean Enlargement 2Spain and Portugal join the EEC
1987 – Single European Act
1990 – Unification of GermanyIntegration of East and West Germany brings East Germany into the EC
1993 – European UnionTreaty of Maastricht creates the European Union (EU) and establishes Economic and Monetary Union (leading to the euro)
1995 – ‘Neutral Countries’ EnlargementSweden, Austria and Finland join the EU
1999 – The EuroCreation of the euro currency (in virtual form)
1999 – Preparation for EnlargementTreaty of Amsterdam updates the EU institutions in advance of the Eastern enlargement
2002 – Euro in CirculationEuro notes and coins enter circulation
2003 – More Institutional ChangesTreaty of Nice makes further reforms of the EU institutions
2004 – Eastern Enlargement 1Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta join the EU
2005 – Constitutional TreatyConstitutional Treaty rejected in referendums in France and the Netherlands and is abandoned
2007 – Eastern Enlargement 2Romania and Bulgaria join the EU
2009 – EU Institutional ReformsTreaty of Lisbon reforms the EU, including the European Council, and incorporates much of the original Constitutional Treaty
2013 – Balkans EnlargementCroatia joins the EU
Towards Brexit? The UK's EU Referendum
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