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Exercise Programs

Exercise programs and strength training
group of older adults exercising
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Exercise Programs

Otago Exercise Program

Otago Exercise Program

Individually prescribed home exercise program comprising:

  • Balance retraining
  • Lower limb muscle strengthening
  • Walking.

Program Effectiveness:

  • Four trials – falls reduced 35%, rate of injuries reduced by 35%.
  • Most effective in 80+ age bracket and in those with a history of falls.

Tai Chi Group Sessions

  • Group fitness class of Tai Chi has shown to significantly reduce falls however not as effective with frail older people
  • One 60 min Tai Chi class for 16 weeks was effective in reducing falls by 33%.
  • The age range was 60-96 years recruited through a newspaper advertisement
  • Meta analysis of other group interventions reported the best results were gained from programs that included a higher challenge with balance and a higher dose of exercise but did not include walking.

Less walking equated to more time dedicated to balancing activities.

QLD Stay On Your Feet Program

Queensland Health

Individual Resources:

  • Individual checklist – fall history, medication, exercise history, balance & walking, vision health conditions and healthy eating.
  • Keep yourself safe
  • Improve balance and strength
  • Common hazards in the home
  • Ageing with vitality workbooks.

A large amount of information for professional and service providers with a pathway provided covering the areas of:


  • Information on falls and falls prevention identify existing stakeholders and services
  • Assess readiness to take action.


  • Prioritise evidence-based strategies
  • Engage stakeholders
  • Develop plan of action and how to measure success
  • Decide how to communicate.


  • Test before you act
  • Trial proposed strategies and resources with stakeholders
  • Implement action plan
  • Monitor progress and adjust as necessary
  • Communicate progress with stakeholders.


  • Measure the impact of action
  • Measure the outcomes
  • Share results
  • Consider the next steps.

Stepping On Program

NSW Office of Preventative Health

  • A free community health program
  • 65 +yrs, living n NSW, able to walk independently, fearful of falling or had a recent fall
  • 7-week program, 2-hour weekly group session – strength & balance, safe footwear, medication management, vision, nutrition, moving safely in the community and reducing hazards in the home environment
  • Individual follow-up and can attend a booster session after 2 months
  • Fall reduction – 31%
  • The program not suitable for people with dementia or neuromuscular conditions.
© CQUniversity 2021
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