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Лаборатория остеологии человека

Знакомство с лабораторией остеологии человека с доктором Ребеккой Гоуленд
9.2
I’m Dr. Rebecca Gowland, and I’m here in the human osteology lab at Durham University in the department of archaeology. I’m a specialist in human bones. And what I’ll be showing you today is the different methods that we use to create an osteological profile from either forensic or archaeological skeletal remains. During the course of this series, we’ll be looking at how to determine sex from skeletal remains, how to estimate age-at-death from infant and juvenile remains as well as adult skeletal remains, how to estimate stature. And we’ll also be taking a look at some of the pathological lesions that we can see on skeletal remains, and how to diagnose and record different pathologies.
54.8
I’m here in the human osteology lab in the archaeology department. And this is where we teach humans skeletal remains to our masters students and our undergraduate students, mostly because they’re trying to find out about the way in which people lived in the past, but the techniques that we teach are just as applicable to the forensic context. So here at Durham, we’ve also trained the police crime scene investigators, we’ve trained people from a number of international agencies who are seeking to identify individuals from mass graves from their skeletal remains, so that they can return those bodies to their loved ones. So the techniques are just the same, it’s the context that differs.
94.5
I’ll run through the techniques for creating an osteological profile. The accuracy and reliability of this profile always depends on the preservation and completeness of the skeletal remains that you have to analyze. It also depends on the burial context as well. So for example, in a lot of mass graves, you might get a number of individuals buried within that grave and during decomposition, the skeletons may become commingled and this can also complicate analysis.

После того как останки найдены, описаны в протоколе и эксгумированы (извлечены), скелет необходимо исследовать более подробно, чтобы установить личность и возможную причину смерти человека. Лучше всего проводить эту работу в лаборатории, где есть хорошее освещение и эталонные материалы. В этом видео я познакомлю вас с различными методами, которыми мы пользуемся при определении остеологических характеристик скелетированных останков, представляющих интерес для археологии или судебной медицины.

На этой неделе мы рассмотрим определение пола по скелетированным останкам, определение возраста на момент смерти по останкам младенцев, детей, и подростков, а также взрослых индивидов, и оценку роста. Все эти показатели необходимы для точного установления личности.

Мы будем проводить остеологическую экспертизу в лаборатории, вдали от места захоронения, но точность и надежность остеологической характеристики всегда зависят от характеристик захоронения, а также от сохранности и полноты скелетированных останков. Например, в случае массовых захоронений в могиле может быть похоронено несколько человек, и в процессе разложения их скелеты могут смешиваться, что осложняет исследование.

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Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology (Russian)

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