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Recap and references

A brief overview of the material covered during this week, some references to additional information, and some Fortran-related humor.

You have reached the end of week 2. During this week, you learned about

  • arrays, indispensable for scientific computing,
  • more details about procedures in Fortran, especially about the intent of procedure arguments,
  • more control flow statements beyond the basics such as select, where and do concurrent,
  • reading and writing from and to files, and I/O formatting.


Here you will find some references to online resources that are relevant to the material in this week.

Software stack


Note that these documents are not open access.


  • 1-based array indexing
  • Xkcd on go to statements
  • Real programmers don’t use PASCAL, letter to the editor of Datamation, volume 29 number 7, pp. 263-265, July 1983.
  • Programming Languages are Like Cars
    • Assembler: A formula I race car. Very fast but difficult to drive and maintain.
    • FORTRAN II: A Model T Ford. Once it was the king of the road.
    • FORTRAN IV: A Model A Ford.
    • FORTRAN 77: a six-cylinder Ford Fairlane with standard transmission and no seat belts.
    • COBOL: A delivery van. It’s bulky and ugly but it does the work.
    • BASIC: A second-hand Rambler with a rebuilt engine and patched upholstery. Your dad bought it for you to learn to drive. You’ll ditch it as soon as you can afford a new one.
    • PL/I: A Cadillac convertible with automatic transmission, a two-tone paint job, white-wall tires, chrome exhaust pipes, and fuzzy dice hanging in the windshield.
    • C++: A black Firebird, the all macho car. Comes with optional seatbelt (lint) and optional fuzz buster (escape to assembler).
    • ALGOL 60: An Austin Mini. Boy that’s a small car.
    • ALGOL 68: An Aston Martin. An impressive car but not just anyone can drive it.
    • Pascal: A Volkswagon Beetle. It’s small but sturdy. Was once popular with intellectual types.
    • LISP: An electric car. It’s simple but slow. Seat belts are not available.
    • PROLOG/LUCID: Prototype concept cars.
    • FORTH: A go-cart.
    • LOGO: A kiddie’s replica of a Rolls Royce. Comes with a real engine and a working horn.
    • APL: A double-decker bus. It takes rows and columns of passengers to the same place all at the same time but it drives only in reverse and is instrumented in Greek.
    • Ada: An army-green Mercedes-Benz staff car. Power steering, power brakes, and automatic transmission are standard. No other colors or options are available. If it’s good enough for generals, it’s good enough for you.
    • Java: All-terrain very slow vehicle.
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Fortran for Scientific Computing

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