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Glossary of less known terms used in this course
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Glossary of less known terms used in this course

  • Adaptors: a short chemically synthesised single or double-strand DNA (oligonucleotide) used in some sequencing methodologies to connect an unknown or amplified DNA strand and a DNA barcode or other oligonucleotides.
  • A-tailing: an enzymatic reaction to add a sequence of adenines at the 3’-terminal of a DNA fragment for sequencing purposes.
  • Barcoding: addition of a known tag of DNA sequence (barcode) to an amplified DNA strand that permits identifying its original sample.
  • cDNA: complementary DNA, a DNA molecule synthesised from a template RNA molecule.
  • COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019.
  • DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, an information molecule forming the “base code” for a living organism.
  • Enzyme: a protein able to catalyse, i.e. accelerate chemical reactions.
  • ICU: intensive care unit, the department of a hospital that provides intensive medicine.
  • ISO quality system: International Organisation of Standardisation. It is a quality management system to ensure that a product or service meets statutory and regulatory requirements.
  • Liquid handling instrument: automated instrument that dispenses programmed volume of reagents, buffers, samples or other specified liquids.
  • NGS: next-generation sequencing, a high throughput sequencing methodology.
  • NHS: National Health Service, the United Kingdom public health system.
  • Nucleotides: the subunit molecules that form DNA and RNA molecules.
  • Pandemic: an epidemic that has spread over several countries or continents, usually affecting a large number of people.
  • Pathogen: a microorganism or infectious agent that can cause disease e.g. virus, bacterium, protozoan, prion or fungus.
  • PBMCs: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a subset of white blood cells with a round nucleus.
  • PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction, a technique to amplify DNA molecules.
  • Real-time PCR: A PCR method that uses fluorescent dye labels to detect and quantify copies of DNA during the amplification process.
  • Reverse transcription: the process of synthesising a cDNA molecule from a template RNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
  • RNA: ribonucleic acid, an information molecule, can be the “base code” for viruses.
  • RT-qPCR: Reverse Transcriptase Quantitative PCR, also known as reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. A PCR method to quantify RNA copies present in a sample; it includes a step to synthesise cDNA from the template RNA before the PCR amplification.
  • Outbreak: a sudden increase in the expected number of cases of a disease in a limited area.
  • SARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
  • Sequencing: the process of “reading” genomic material such as DNA or RNA
  • SOP: Standard Operating Procedures. Written descriptions of a procedure, protocol, technique, method, workflow or pipeline.

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From Swab to Server: Testing, Sequencing, and Sharing During a Pandemic

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