Next thing is I would like to explain the types of risk for international travel. There are ten of them. And firstly they are talking about is the equipment and functional risk. By the meaning is talking about the problem with organization mechanic and equipment during traveling. let’s see for example， this could be a part of the coach bus broken， or even with the poor quality of poor tour guide， poor tour operator during the trip. That could be the example of the equipment and functional risk. Secondly is psychological risk. This psychological risk describe the risk to reflect tourist’s personality or self-image.
Let’s see for example， if you go on a vacation and then go to the night club, you enjoy drinking you take the picture of your drinking with some alcohol beverage in the night club. So this might help a little bit you might concern about that what if people perceive you ，ok， as some kind of drinker, or people think that you are a little bit of like question mind on your behavior. So that why this might increase some of psychological risk of you think that this is might not be good to disclose, or to tell other people about your drinking habit, or your the places you travel with. Because its might ruin your personal image, Ok ,or your personality right here.
Thirdly，we will talk about this social risk, which mean the travel that influence the opinion of others. Let’s say for example if you go to the casino, right, so some other people it might not create a good a people might think about you as you are a gambler something like that. So this might increase some high of risk of if you visit to the casino. Fourthly is financial risk, this is talking about the traveller experience does not provide value for the money spent. This is very obvious straightforward case, right ,about the perception that you have to travelling with the money you spend on it.
Sometime this a little bit over price on the dinning experience that you have you go to the restaurant. You pay a lot of money but with the poor service quality things like that. So that why this is create the financial risk. The fifth one is the time risk. so this is we are talking about the amount of time that the traveller spend traveling to or from the destination. So in another word is just the waste of time. Especially some oversea tourist that they have very short of period of time to travel. So that’s why this can be very important factor for the international tourists, because time is a key factor here.
Number six is physical risk, which is the risk of danger or injury to the traveller. So this is pretty much， this one include with the health risk of the national disaster, Or some kind of any tourists attack some of them might have some impact too. Or even some of the food poisoning, ok， that when you consuming some pizza food and then you have some kind of diarrhea of food poisoning that could happen. Next one is the health risk， this is the possibility to become sick or illness while traveling. So that why this is another similar example about some of the food poisoning of the some diarrhea.
The next thing is political instabilities, which is the risk of political turmoil in the country being visited. This is very common let’s see for example, the case of the kup in Thailand yellow and red shirts you might have heard of that. This is another part of the risk. And next one is terrorism risk. This is the possibility of being affect or injured in a terrorist act. I think recently we heard the news of Paris, London is about terrorist attack of the ISIS. So that, why this could be another terrorism risk for the tourist who plan to go there too. And, lastly is the satisfaction risk, which is talking about the travel experience will not provide personal satisfaction or self-actualization.
So, this part it can be very much over all together, take all possible factors into consideration, and come up with the overall perception of the satisfaction level and justify the satisfaction risk.
Right， after we already know the types of perceived risk already, so right now， I would like to mention about the perception of risk. From many research has been conduct about understanding of risk, so that why some conclusion they have come up with that. Some risks will have temporary affect or event in term of short term impact on the travel visit intention. Ok ,let’s see for example here. During the bomb in Bangkok,Thailand, Ok， couple of years ago, so after that case is only have some impact for only a few month of the tourist decrease.
But after that the number of tourists bounce back as normal, so that why there is some risk even though this very serious bomb, but It can have only a temporary impact from the tourist perspective. And even furthermore in the different situations, some of the individual tourists will see some risk dimensions as more important than other risks. Let’s see for example here. When we talk about the case of the leakage of the nuclear plant in Japan during that period of time a lot of travel agency, even a lot of travel the alias, try to come up with the very especial cheap package to bring back the tourist to Japan.
But actually ,it’s not that effective, people will still worry or have some concern about their health issues. So that why in that case, even though financial risk is very low, because it is very cheap and very attractive, but people still weight their health risk are more important, and become more concern form the tourist perspective. So that why this is a little bit of depend on the situation, depend on the perception of individual tourist. And even like that some of the tourist perception of risk might impact the destination image and the tourist behaviors. Let’s see for example here. In the case of the Pickpocketing.
let’s say like that, some people might think that this is the only social impact of that certain country, so it might not have the major impact from the tourist perspective. Or even this is not vice versa, so that why is very very depends on how tourist perceive and defied the image over image of destination once they travel. And lastly， the destination management organizations or operators are responsible for handling with the possibly negative risk.
Let’s see for example， once when we have the bomb in Bangkok ,immediately the police the tourist police, or the embassy or the concern destination management organization become in public and tell the tourists about what’s going on and how they handle that, how they take action of those the bomb situation. So that’s why if one really have the selfish information tourists feel a little bit more understanding, and then leave with anxiety. So that why this is very another critical issue, that the destination management organization need to take a promly action on how handling of those risk.