The next topic that I would like to discuss further is about may tourists increase risk. How come the tourist become one of the target, or become a hot issue for the risk, increase the high chance of risk here. Some scholar define some of the theory that relate to this phenomenon. First of all ,when they talk about this is about the increase payoff to crime, which mean more such think about that even you are local residents or local tourist. Sometime you can figure it out to that who are tourist， right？ You can see by observing， by the way they dress or by the way they speaks, so that why this is some way you can distinguished the tourists.
So that why is the same thing. In this case， tourist they will be more crime target than the local resident. Ok, so that why because they can be easily point out as a tourist. So that why there is increase high chance that they can be the target here. And secondly ,the reason is the visitor could be criminality. So that why in this case, let’s see for example ， many tourists who visit that destination, they might have the lower social connection to the area. So that why in this case they might not have a closer attachment with the destination. Let’s see for example here.
If you travel into some of the restaurant or the bar in oversea country, even though in that country that is the law regulation talking about you are not allowed to smoke in the indoor restaurant, but as a tourist maybe you won’t listen, right? you won’t follow that regulation. And that why somehow people in the same time from the local operator, they make excuse to that Ha, you are a tourist so that why is ok to break the rules. Because you have such a low social connection, so that why this is another type the chance, you might create the risk that when you do something illegal. ok, because somehow the regulation is been losing, because you are a tourist.
And thirdly, this is about social disorganization theory. Let see for example, in some certain tourist attractions, you will see lots of short term of tourist, because they just come here stay only for a few hour and then left. This is the same time as the local residence too, so that why in this case there will be a lot of opportunity that you see a lot of new phases coming everyday. Right? And then due to the poor management of the crowd control. So that why this can create some chance of a criminal chance for any some of the con people to steal your wallet or do something else to harm the tourist, that could be another reason as well.
The fourth one is that in term of the routine activities. This is talking about in the case that in some certain places, ok, they might create the same routine of activity. Let’s see for example, in some national park or some theme park, right? A lot of tourists will depart from the theme park very late almost at the when the time of the theme park closed. Ok, so that why by the time there will be the huge flood of tourists coming out of the theme park and then go to the train, go to the bus, ready in line and a lot of people crowd waiting for the bus.
So that why that could be another chance for create opportunity for the criminal persons to steal your wallet or do something to harm you. And lastly is about the hot spot theory, this is talking about the case that in some places.
Let’s see for example in the casino. You think about this at the casino if you visit the casino. If you see people playing cards on the table, besides playing cards what else they did. Some of you may think that maybe beside they are playing cards, they drink, they smoke. So that why this could be a chance that people do something more in the illegal way or in the immoral way. So that why this could increase another opportunity for those people to do something more illegal. Let’s see for example, later on they can use drugs, or go to for prostitution service things like that.
So that why this can be a very challenging part, that a lot of tourists might be the target to increase the risk while they traveling to that oversea destination.
Alright and then right now, I would like to present another conceptual framework of what I talked about the perception of risk and travel decision. Ok, this adopted by two scholars here that we mentioned earlier. So this one from this model we talking about is that when we have the risk perception the inticident factor that come up with the risk perception including tourists attributes、 communicated information and lastly is the tourist experience. So that why all these key factors form the over all of risk perceptions, and then later on the tourist will make some behavioral action, whether or not how they make the decision， when of the future travel plan.
First of all, let’s talk about the tourist attributes first. Firstly, I would like to mention that when we talk about the tourist attribute first of all is personal trait. ok, this is by the individual which mean some of us might have some kind of experience thinking. So that why some people are very kind of like that I’m ok very boring person, so whatever I’m ok. But some people is another for seek right. Hey I want to go woo do something different their daily routine activities. So that why if you are that kind of experience seeking, you will not afraid of risk. Or the risk level will be very low, because you would like to challenge yourself.
Let’s have some new exposure on doing new things, or participate in very different activities. So that why that could come to the different high chance of risk too. So this one is very individual bases in term of the personal trade and experience seeking. The next thing is about the nationality and cultural background. This is quite another important factor too. Let’s see for example here. The first of all, I would like to discuss is about the local vs international tourists. You think about as if you are the local tourists, if you are the local tourists, If you are in the city that they have some kind of gambling and casino.
For you, you might have a serious concern about social impact right about criminal 、 about parents do not spend time with their kids, but instead they are in the casino, just gambling things like that. Or even some kind of like a lot of criminal, ok incident happening in your town or in your city. But from tourist perspective they don’t know right ? they have short term to risk sitting in that city. So that why they don’t have any attachment with the local. So that why this is can be another major issue about local vs international tourists. And second of all is about cultural proximity, which mean if tourists are living in the same area or in the similar nearby regions.
They may have a similar understanding of those risk. So that’s why the lever of risk might be slightly lower. Let’s see for example， in term of food，ok，spicy food let’s see like that. Chinese tourist ,Thai tourists we are very family we spicy dishes，right？ But this might not be a case for foreign tourists. So that why because of the cultural proximity that we are very close nearby. So that why we have a common sense of understanding of risk. Ok， so that why this could be a little bit lower. Lastly is the social demographics. In term of age, they still don’t have any conclusion in term of age that may determent in term of perception of risk or not.
But it may come into the case that if you travel with the kids, the young kids or the infant that could be the partner you might need to take extra care, because they can not handle the risk and let you make sure like adult tourist. So that’s why if the case you might need to redefine your thinking of risk, but if you travel yourself with friends or by yourself, the perception might be totally different, that could be another one. And another study have conclude too that the lower education and higher income might have a higher level of perceive risk. This is may be due to that they have more money, so that why their expectation is higher.
Or in contrary even they have the lower education may be they don’t have enough information, they don’t have a well understanding of the situation, so that why the chance of risk is high. Ok the perception of risk is high.