When we move on to the second factor is talk about communication information. All these thing,ok, we talk about at three stages. Firstly is the pre-purchase phase, which mean in this level you never visit that certain destination before, so that’s why you have no idea about the actual risk you gonna see right. So that’s why at this stage pretty much you just go by listening from other source of information, ok. And then of course you understand about that country you know about anything you plan to handle, you need to handle while you travel there. So that’s why it can create the minimize the perceptions of risk.
Ok, and then we will move on to during purchase phase, which mean during on your travel during your traveling to that destination. So that why this is a time that you try to accomplit your perception,you travel, you gain the experience and then overall you will create the destination image, whether or not you like or you hate it in that destination. And lastly, this is the post-purchase stage, which mean after you finish all the trip. So that why in this case you will come to space that you will justify the decision to oneself and others, which mean will you go back again or will you see something about that destination.
It could be either good or bad, but that is another part of post-purchase stage which is very common in the consumer behavior once they travel. Some studies have shown that tourists can reduce their perceived level of risk through information. It can be down in any stage of travel experience. It can be even pre-during and post of your travel. Ok, and that’s why it can help you reduce any anxieties, ok, any worry, so that why you have pretty much a bit of understanding in that countries, ok. So that’s why instead of it .Let’s see for example, if the flight is delay due to the bad weather,right, so probably the airlines might inform you the alternative plan, ok.
You can catch the next flight of the different airline, or you need to wait for another three or five hours. Let’s see like that, but at least you have some idea what you need to do next, because that could be somehow that it will help you to handle with your situation on traveling. And another part of the communicated information is most tourists require objective information. What does this mean by this? Which mean some of the prom information from the tourism board? Let’s see for example, some media information is necessary, if some risk happening.
Let’s see for example, even the fight delay, right, the airline or the graf start should inform the passenger what’s going on or how long we need to wait. Ok, so they need some kind of objective information and with the prom action too. Ok, and lastly is the direct information exchanges from friends, family members and word-of-mouth are still still very very important here. Ok, many study have proved this. Especially someone who has some direct experience in that destination, ok ,that could be the first good resources for the tourists to seek some information here.
The next item is about the travel experience. When we talk about travel experience here, mostly we talk is tourist knowledge. Ok, this is we talked about the knowledge that gain through general tourist experience, as well as experience with specific definition. So that’s why let’s see for example. If you travel within China, let’s say like that, your risk perception might be lower, right? But if you plan to travel oversea, the risk might be different or even can be higher. Because you travel first timely, this is the first time you travelling to Europe, ok or to US something like that.
So that why this could be another part people might react on different types of risk in the different manner, so that is a part of the tourist experience here. And then another part is the prior visitation of a certain destination, which is talking about this is the first time or the repeat traveling. Ok, because first type of course that risk might be very… they never have experience so that why it could be the first impression on the risk. So that why it could be a lot of uncertainty that the tourists experience that. But if this is a repeat recede, they have experience before, so they know how to handle that, how to prevent the risk before they travel again.
So that why they travel experience might be very very important to that how people justify the level of risk.
When we already perceive all this key concept here, once the perception of risk at the tourist destination is already high. What will they do? Finally, first thing they will do is that they will try to consider other factors into considerations. Let’s see for example, if people are so concern about safety issues or security issues may be people may be willing to scarify on the financial risk, which mean they don’t mean need to pay a little bit higher price to book a better hotel,right？ In order to compare with safety and security risk, ok, that is the part of the idea on the travel decision here. Or even another part is there will shows another alternative destination.
This is another approach with the risk reductions or the risk avoidance strategies. Let’s see for example here， instead of the bomb in Thailand, if you already plan to some a lot of Hong Kong tourists, they plan to travel to Thailand. but because of the bomb incidence in Thailand, so that why Hong Kong people don’t go to Thailand. Instead they go to Taiwan ，ok， because this is the part of they avoid, because this is a little bit just happening, a little bit very shaking situation. so that why they avoid that, so that why this could be another part of that.
And another part is we talking about is neighboring effect, which mean the tourist don’t go in that area no matter what. Let’s see for example，in the middle east, if you have some kind of carefully, Muslim, some tourist attact in that regions, so that why people avoid to go any of those countries too. So that why even though it happened at one country alone, but it affect the whole region. So that’s why this is to be another risk way. Ok , very very serious to some certain countries, if they rely on some tourism here.
So lastly, I would like to present some of my previous study that I’m talking about perceived risk. What I try to test here is try to investigate the moderating of perceived risk on the religion between the destination image and overall satisfaction, and between overall satisfaction and behavioral intention. For what I did these this is what happening in Thailand during 2004, because this one happen in 2003 actually that is virus Koh Samui in Thailand. So that why there is huge impact for the decrease number of tourists, so that why I would like to investigate national disaster in Thailand. So that why this is part of my study here.
And also besides the tourists disaster, it also in that pretty much the same common period of SARS incidence in Thailand too. So that why this is a part of my study try to explore the impact of this risk to the destination image of Thailand. So that’s why from the recourse I have it, I come up with the conclusion that with the low perceived- risk level, the relationship between destination image and overall satisfaction will be greater than the type of perceived risk level. Ok, this is pretty much proved to be true by common sense. Especially in the case of the quality of the hotel and restaurant, because this one might be the SARS infection.
Because the SARS can be infection by personal touch or some kind of food consumption, so that why the quality of hotels and restaurants is quite a key indicate here. And in the mean time in to visit the Koh Samui, cultural and natural attraction is another part too. Because that is happening in the Phuket the southern part of Thailand. So that why this is another conclusion that we define the perceive risk. Moderate the relationship between destination image and overall satisfaction here. And also with the low perceived risk level, the relationship between overall satisfaction and behavior intention would be greater at the high perceived risk level.
So that why this is included to be to that the overall satisfaction and behavioral intention will be high, if the tourists perceive at the low risk. So that why this is very very important for destination management organization. They need to make sure that the lower level of perceived-risk to the destination in order to enhance or induce the tourist perception to come to visit the destination.
Ok, all right I think in overall to conclude I mentioned by far is we already talked about the case that the meaning of risk, the type of risk and how risk perceived risk have some impact on the tourist decision making to visit the destination, all rght? So that why this is very very important topic that from the destination point of view. We need to ensure that tourists perceive safely and security to visiting the destination. All right, thank you very much.