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Now this is a model adapted from Green and Kreuter. It’s the PROCEED/PRECEDE model, and it’s very, very well known. It’s just presented the yet another example of a planning framework that can be used to help people work through both an issues and identification of an issue, but also then creation of solutions. And in this particular case, also coming up with a way or a range of evaluation strategies. The PRECEDE/PROCEED model can be really as it can be simplified from what was a very complex diagram in the last slide, to actually asking five questions around the planning stage and five questions around the evaluation stage.
These are the questions that you might ask at the planning stage around goals and risk factors and strategy selection. It’s really worth just spending a little bit of time thinking about the language that we use. I’ve been surprised how many times I’ve worked with senior people and they are not able to distinguish what is an appropriate objective, and sometimes get quite confused between goals and objective. It’s not really that difficult, though.
The goal is: what do you alternately want to achieve by doing the program? It’s got a direct link to the health problem or the concern.
So, that’s also got links.
Sometimes we use this also with the word of an aim: what’s the primary outcome we’re trying to do? The health indicators, the diagnoses, they’re all related to that. The objective is the way in which we’re actually going to achieve those changes. How do we change the situation from what it is now to what it needs to be? It may be about changes in a target group, may be about behavioral changes, or may be about changes in an environment. So distinguishing between the two is vitally important as part of the planning process. Remember that during planning, you need to resist the temptation to jump straight in and start thinking about strategies. This is a mistake that beginners make.
They see a problem and they automatically come up with a magic solution. But the trouble is that when you pick simple solutions, you often pick the wrong one. It is really worthwhile going through the planning process, to understand the problem in detail, to be able to do a needs assessment, to think deeply about what you want to achieve, and set yourself very specific objectives to do that. You need to ask yourself, “What do you need to do to make this happen?” Because in the asking of that, you move to strategies and that’s what I’m going to talk about next.

Another model, PRECEDE model, was adapted from Green and Kreuter in 2005. This model is well-known. You can check the slide with their framework. To simplify it, you can ask five questions in the planning stage:

  • How serious is the health issue, concern, or problem?
  • Which behavioral and environmental risk factors are involved?
  • What contributes to those risk factors?
  • Which combination of interventions might change these factors?
  • How can those interventions be implemented?

You will also need to consider your goal and objective.

  • Goal – what do you ultimately want to achieve with the program, corresponds to health problem or concern.

  • Objectives – the changes to be brought about by the target group, corresponds to risk/protective factors and contributing factors that cause/result in the health concern.

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Capacity Building: Core Competencies for Health Promotion

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