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Introduction to sustainability in AM

Patricia Nyamekye provides an overview of ways in which AM contributes to sustainability and explains the concept of circular economy.
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Hello and welcome to this lecture!
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In this lecture i’ll be presenting to you  sustainability aspects of additive manufacturing.   My name is Patricia Nyamekye. The content of this lecture includes definitions,   perspectives of sustainability, how to  measure sustainability, ways by which additive   manufacturing supports sustainability, sustainable  development design and conclusions of the lecture.
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Introduction to this lecture I  would like to say that there are   there are concerns at the rate at which resources  are depleting or how emissions are causing global   warming by way of trapped emissions leaving the  head to the atmosphere. Sustainable development   is defined as the development that meets the needs  of the present without compromising the ability of   future generations to meet their own needs. Manufacturing processes are defined as the   processes that transform materials and information  into goals for the satisfaction of human needs.   Sustainability focuses on meeting the sustainable  or sustainability goals from three perspectives -   and these include environment, economic and  society.
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Here is a representation of how   these three aspects commonly referred to as three  pillars of sustainability are needed to interact   in this model called the integrated pillars of  sustainability, whereby when all three aspects   have been met forming the E to the power three,  we can say true sustainability has been achieved. How then do we measure sustainability? This this  brings us to the topic of life cycle thinking   which is a comprehensive approach that supports  scientists, practitioners and companies   to design sustainable production alternatives.  Life cycle assessment is the methodology to   obtain quantifiable and objective information  to sustainable production alternatives (so we   need to).
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Life cycle assessment helps us to  measure numbers, values to be able to make   dead comparison between two alternative  manufacturing production methods. And   also there are two methods by which we can be  able to measure sustainability and these include   life cycle assessment and life cycle costing.  Life cycle assessment evaluated life cycle   environmental impacts and life cycle  costing evaluate the life cycle cost.   You may refer to ISO 14040 or ISO 15686-5  for more details on these two methods. How then does additive manufacturing support  sustainability? Additive manufacturing has the   potential to reduce resource consumption.
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Raw  materials usage is optimized as exact layering   of needed amount of material is possible.  There is also the possibility to use,   especially in powder bed fusion which is  a subcategory of additive manufacturing,   99 percent of the materials are reusable or only  one percent is usually coming out as wastes.  
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Studies have shown this: light weights  and optimized designs through topology   lattices and near net shape designs through  additive manufacturing enhances functionality   and performance.
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Potential to reduce supply chain  inefficiencies: so there is a reduction with cost   with localized manufacturing which is as a result  of reduced transportation, inventory with means   of on-demand production which reduces the  downtime and also reduces the amount of   materials which or products which usually come out  as waste because they fall out of need or out of  
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function to the application.
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Also potential  to enhance life cycle time and efficiency:   AM helps to replace the overall lifecycle cost as  or by means of repairing components with broken   parts instead of replacing the whole component  we can use directed energy deposition which is   a part of additive manufacturing or sub-category  of adjective manufacturing to repair broken parts   and we will see this in example cases. Reduces  amounts of direct and indirect emissions by way   of reduction of raw material and energy  used in these raw material productions. Sustainable development is the creation of durable  and cost effective components with reduction   of waste and emissions to the ecosystem that  satisfies the goals of sustainable development or   manufacturing.
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Additive manufacturing considers  the mechanical considerations in terms of the   listed steps and also sustainable considerations  in terms of these listed steps and also business   considerations in terms of these listed steps.  And by so doing we are able to achieve circular   economic targets in terms of re-use, reduce,  remanufacture, repair, re-recover and recycle   in the different spaces of the  life cycle as we can see here.
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In conclusion i would like to say that  sustainability extends beyond resource   efficiency to the reduction of waste and  emissions. The role of waste reduction is   crucial in the era of circular economy - not only  resource efficiency must be the goal of industrial   sustainable development, but also the reduction  of waste and emissions. Sustainability generally   includes the preservation of the ecosystem  services such as environmental quality,   biodiversity, human wellbeing and several  others. Thank you very much for your attention.

This lecture includes definitions and three pillars of sustainability, methods how to measure sustainability and ways by which additive manufacturing supports sustainability.

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Additive Manufacturing in the Industry: Impact on Sustainability

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