Developing a paragraph
1. Chronological developmentIn the example below, an issue is examined in chronological sequence, so the reader can understand how it developed through time.
When countries in sub-Saharan Africa became independent, the state dominated the provision of utilities. However, in the 1980s the debt crisis and the ensuing contraction of budgets prompted a re-appraisal of public sector provision. Donors began lobbying for the restructuring of public services; by the 1990s, they were demanding full-scale privatisation. However, implementation of such reforms has been slow.
2. Support from statistics
One of the chief reasons: lack of interest from private investors. After an initial surge, the pace of privatisation slowed markedly. Between 1990 and 2003, less than four per cent of global private investment in infrastructure went to sub-Saharan Africa.
3. Further explanation
Thus, many governments have had to re-align their expectations. They now focus on creating the right conditions for private investors, having put full-scale privatisation on the back-burner. This approach also involves resorting to short-term management contracts with private firms as an interim measure.
The initial hopes for privatisation were so high that donor spending on infrastructure fell in the expectation that the private sector would take up the slack. For example, World Bank lending for infrastructure investment declined by 50 per cent during 1993-2002, with much of this directed towards preparing firms for privatisation. In 2002, Bank lending for water and sanitation projects, in particular, was only 25 per cent of its annual average during 1993-97.
1. Chronological development
An Intermediate Guide to Writing in English for University Study
Our purpose is to transform access to education.
We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.
We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.